Unlike 'institutionalized' forms of participation, informal methods of engagement are acted out on a day-to-day basis as part of routine human interaction. Although informal participation takes place outside of political institutions, the kinds of interaction may be the same including dialogue, deliberation, collaborative decision-making, etc.
Note: the following entry is a stub. Please help us complete it. Definition Social innovation labs (otherwise known as design labs, change labs, civic experiments) offer a space for collaborative action on 'wicked' problems. According to Darcy Riddell, Director of Strategic Learning for the J.W. McConnell Family Foundation, "Social Innovation...
Civic or 'public' journalism treats writers and readers of news media as participants in the democratic process rather than passive reporters or observers. Civic journalism reports news in a way that encourages and facilitates public deliberation on political and social issues.
Participatory urban planning directly engages neighbourhood residents in the process of land use planning. Residents provide local knowledge and information to compliment the technical know-how of experts and officials. Solutions are collectively developed to meet the needs of the community.
Neighbourhood management has been used primarily in low-income neighbourhoods as a way to reform service delivery, improve living conditions and build community capacity. The process is fundamentally participatory in that it involves community members directly in the planning, implementation, and maintenance of services and infrastructure.
A relatively new entry into the field of democratic innovation, Citizens' Relations Management Platforms are online hubs connecting people to other channels of citizen-government communication and public services.
Community- or citizen-based monitoring is a generic term for citizen oversight of public services. Also known as participatory monitoring, CBM is ideally led by the local population and involves both oversight and reporting of service quality, efficiency, and efficacy.