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Since October 2011, most people who do not have Medicare obtained their drugs throug their Medicaid managed care plan can you buy cipro without a prescription. At that time, this drug benefit was "carved into" the Medicaid managed care benefit package. Before that date, people enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan obtained all of their health care through the plan, but used their regular Medicaid card to access any drug available on the state formulary on a "fee for service" basis without needing to utilize a restricted pharmacy network or comply with managed care plan rules. COMING IN April 2021 can you buy cipro without a prescription - In the NYS Budget enacted in April 2020, the pharmacy benefit was "carved out" of "mainstream" Medicaid managed care plans.

That means that members of managed care plans will access their drugs outside their plan, unlike the rest of their medical care, which is accessed from in-network providers. How Prescription Drugs are Obtained through Managed Care plans No - Until April 2020 HOW DO MANAGED CARE PLANS DEFINE THE PHARMACY BENEFIT FOR CONSUMERS?. The Medicaid pharmacy benefit includes all FDA approved can you buy cipro without a prescription prescription drugs, as well as some over-the-counter drugs and medical supplies. Under Medicaid managed care.

Plan formularies will be comparable to but not the same as the Medicaid formulary. Managed care plans are required to have drug formularies that are “comparable” to the Medicaid fee for service can you buy cipro without a prescription formulary. Plan formularies do not have to include all drugs covered listed on the fee for service formulary, but they must include generic or therapeutic equivalents of all Medicaid covered drugs. The Pharmacy Benefit will vary by plan.

Each plan will have its own formulary and drug coverage policies like prior can you buy cipro without a prescription authorization and step therapy. Pharmacy networks can also differ from plan to plan. Prescriber Prevails applies in certain drug classes. Prescriber can you buy cipro without a prescription prevails applys to medically necessary precription drugs in the following classes.

atypical antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-retrovirals, anti-rejection, seizure, epilepsy, endocrine, hemotologic and immunologic therapeutics. Prescribers will need to demonstrate reasonable profession judgment and supply plans witht requested information and/or clinical documentation. Pharmacy Benefit Information Website -- http://mmcdruginformation.nysdoh.suny.edu/-- This website provides very can you buy cipro without a prescription helpful information on a plan by plan basis regarding pharmacy networks and drug formularies. The Department of Health plans to build capacity for interactive searches allowing for comparison of coverage across plans in the near future.

Standardized Prior Autorization (PA) Form -- The Department of Health worked with managed care plans, provider organizations and other state agencies to develop a standard prior authorization form for the pharmacy benefit in Medicaid managed care. The form will be posted on the can you buy cipro without a prescription Pharmacy Information Website in July of 2013. Mail Order Drugs -- Medicaid managed care members can obtain mail order/specialty drugs at any retail network pharmacy, as long as that retail network pharmacy agrees to a price that is comparable to the mail order/specialty pharmacy price. CAN CONSUMERS SWITCH PLANS IN ORDER TO GAIN ACCESS TO DRUGS?.

Changing plans is often an effective strategy for consumers eligible for both Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) who receive can you buy cipro without a prescription their pharmacy service through Medicare Part D, because dual eligibles are allowed to switch plans at any time. Medicaid consumers will have this option only in the limited circumstances during the first year of enrollment in managed care. Medicaid managed care enrollees can only leave and join another plan within the first 90 days of joining a health plan. After the 90 days has expired, enrollees are “locked in” to the plan for the rest of the can you buy cipro without a prescription year.

Consumers can switch plans during the “lock in” period only for good cause. The pharmacy benefit changes are not considered good cause. After the first 12 months of enrollment, Medicaid managed care enrollees can switch plans at any can you buy cipro without a prescription time. STEPS CONSUMERS CAN TAKE WHEN A MANAGED CARE PLAM DENIES ACCESS TO A NECESSARY DRUG As a first step, consumers should try to work with their providers to satisfy plan requirements for prior authorization or step therapy or any other utilization control requirements.

If the plan still denies access, consumers can pursue review processes specific to managed care while at the same time pursuing a fair hearing. All plans are required to maintain an internal can you buy cipro without a prescription and external review process for complaints and appeals of service denials. Some plans may develop special procedures for drug denials. Information on these procedures should be provided in member handbooks.

Beginning April 1, 2018, Medicaid managed care enrollees whose plan denies prior approval of a prescription drug, or discontinues a drug that had been approved, will receive an Initial Adverse Determination notice from the plan - See Model Denial IAD Notice and IAD Notice to Reduce, Suspend or Stop Services The enrollee can you buy cipro without a prescription must first request an internal Plan Appeal and wait for the Plan's decision. An adverse decision is called a 'FInal Adverse Determination" or FAD. See model Denial FAD Notice and FAD Notice to Reduce, Suspend or Stop Services. The enroll has the right to request a can you buy cipro without a prescription fair hearing to appeal an FAD.

The enrollee may only request a fair hearing BEFORE receiving the FAD if the plan fails to send the FAD in the required time limit, which is 30 calendar days in standard appeals, and 72 hours in expedited appeals. The plan may extend the time to decide both standard and expedited appeals by up to 14 days if more information is needed and it is in the enrollee's interest. AID CONTINUING -- If an enrollee requests a Plan Appeal and then a fair hearing because can you buy cipro without a prescription access to a drug has been reduced or terminated, the enrollee has the right to aid continuing (continued access to the drug in question) while waiting for the Plan Appeal and then the fair hearing. The enrollee must request the Plan Appeal and then the Fair Hearing before the effective date of the IAD and FAD notices, which is a very short time - only 10 days including mailing time.

See more about the changes in Managed Care appeals here. Even though that article is focused on Managed Long Term Care, the new appeals requirements can you buy cipro without a prescription also apply to Mainstream Medicaid managed care. Enrollees who are in the first 90 days of enrollment, or past the first 12 months of enrollment also have the option of switching plans to improve access to their medications. Consumers who experience problems with access to prescription drugs should always file a complaint with the State Department of Health’s Managed Care Hotline, number listed below.

ACCESSING MEDICAID'S PHARMACY BENEFIT IN FEE FOR SERVICE MEDICAID For those Medicaid recipients who are not yet in a Medicaid Managed Care program, can you buy cipro without a prescription and who do not have Medicare Part D, the Medicaid Pharmacy program covers most of their prescription drugs and select non-prescription drugs and medical supplies for Family Health Plus enrollees. Certain drugs/drug categories require the prescribers to obtain prior authorization. These include brand name drugs that have a generic alternative under New York's mandatory generic drug program or prescribed drugs that are not on New York's preferred drug list. The full Medicaid formulary can be searched on can you buy cipro without a prescription the eMedNY website.

Even in fee for service Medicaid, prescribers must obtain prior authorization before prescribing non-preferred drugs unless otherwise indicated. Prior authorization is required for original prescriptions, not refills. A prior authorization is effective for the original dispensing and up to can you buy cipro without a prescription five refills of that prescription within the next six months. Click here for more information on NY's prior authorization process.

The New York State Board of Pharmacy publishes an annual list of the 150 most frequently prescribed drugs, in the most common quantities. The State Department of can you buy cipro without a prescription Health collects retail price information on these drugs from pharmacies that participate in the Medicaid program. Click here to search for a specific drug from the most frequently prescribed drug list and this site can also provide you with the locations of pharmacies that provide this drug as well as their costs. Click here to view New York State Medicaid’s Pharmacy Provider Manual.

WHO YOU CAN CALL FOR HELP Community can you buy cipro without a prescription Health Advocates Hotline. 1-888-614-5400 NY State Department of Health's Managed Care Hotline. 1-800-206-8125 (Mon. - Fri can you buy cipro without a prescription.

8:30 am - 4:30 pm) NY State Department of Insurance. 1-800-400-8882 NY State Attorney General's Health Care Bureau. 1-800-771-7755Haitian individuals and immigrants from some other countries who have applied for Temporary can you buy cipro without a prescription Protected Status (TPS) may be eligible for public health insurance in New York State. 2019 updates - The Trump administration has taken steps to end TPS status.

Two courts have temporarily enjoined the termination of TPS, one in New York State in April 2019 and one in California in October 2018. The California case was argued in an appeals court on August 14, 2019, which the LA Times reported looked likely to uphold the can you buy cipro without a prescription federal action ending TPS. See US Immigration Website on TPS - General TPS website with links to status in all countries, including HAITI. See also Pew Research March 2019 article.

Courts Block Changes in Public charge rule- See updates on the Public Charge rule here, blocked by federal court can you buy cipro without a prescription injunctions in October 2019. Read more about this change in public charge rules here. What is Temporary Protected Status?. TPS is a temporary immigration status granted to eligible individuals of a certain country designated by the Department of Homeland Security because can you buy cipro without a prescription serious temporary conditions in that country, such as armed conflict or environmental disaster, prevents people from that country to return safely.

On January 21, 2010 the United States determined that individuals from Haiti warranted TPS because of the devastating earthquake that occurred there on January 12. TPS gives undocumented Haitian residents, who were living in the U.S. On January 12, 2010, protection can you buy cipro without a prescription from forcible deportation and allows them to work legally. It is important to note that the U.S.

Grants TPS to individuals from other countries, as well, including individuals from El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Somalia and Sudan. TPS and Public Health Insurance TPS applicants residing in New York are eligible for Medicaid and Family Health Plus as long as they can you buy cipro without a prescription also meet the income requirements for these programs. In New York, applicants for TPS are considered PRUCOL immigrants (Permanently Residing Under Color of Law) for purposes of medical assistance eligibility and thus meet the immigration status requirements for Medicaid, Family Health Plus, and the Family Planning Benefit Program. Nearly all children in New York remain eligible for Child Health Plus including TPS applicants and children who lack immigration status.

For more information on immigrant eligibility for public can you buy cipro without a prescription health insurance in New York see 08 GIS MA/009 and the attached chart. Where to Apply What to BringIndividuals who have applied for TPS will need to bring several documents to prove their eligibility for public health insurance. Individuals will need to bring. 1) Proof of identity can you buy cipro without a prescription.

2) Proof of residence in New York. 3) Proof of income. 4) Proof of application for TPS. 5) Proof that U.S.

Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has received the application for TPS. Free Communication Assistance All applicants for public health insurance, including Haitian Creole speakers, have a right to get help in a language they can understand. All Medicaid offices and enrollers are required to offer free translation and interpretation services to anyone who cannot communicate effectively in English. A bilingual worker or an interpreter, whether in-person or over the telephone, must be provided in all interactions with the office.

Important documents, such as Medicaid applications, should be translated either orally or in writing. Interpreter services must be offered free of charge, and applicants requiring interpreter services must not be made to wait unreasonably longer than English speaking applicants. An applicant must never be asked to bring their own interpreter. Related Resources on TPS and Public Health Insurance o The New York Immigration Coalition (NYIC) has compiled a list of agencies, law firms, and law schools responding to the tragedy in Haiti and the designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status.

A copy of the list is posted at the NYIC’s website at http://www.thenyic.org. o USCIS TPS website with links to status in all countries, including HAITI. O For information on eligibility for public health insurance programs call The Legal Aid Society’s Benefits Hotline 1-888-663-6880 Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays. 9:30 am - 12:30 pm FOR IMMIGRATION HELP.

CONTACT THE New York State New Americans Hotline for a referral to an organization to advise you. 212-419-3737 Monday-Friday, from 9:00 a.m. To 8:00 p.m.Saturday-Sunday, from 9:00 a.m. To 5:00 p.m.

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Owing to the multiphase transformations in economy, society, natural environment, lifestyles and healthcare system that China has been experiencing over the past three decades, coupled with the rapid population ageing, China’s burden of non-communicable disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, has been rising drastically.1 Both the incidence of and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been increasing dramatically since 1980s in China.1 In 2019, IHD was the second cause of deaths in the Chinese population, which counted for 17.6% of all deaths and 9.1% of disability-adjusted life years.2 Although there are ample evidence on the socioeconomic disparities in CVD in high-income countries, evidence is still limited in low- and middle-income countries such as China.3The paper by Chen et al is the first comprehensive report on the educational disparities in IHD incidence, case fatality and mortality in China, using data from Extra resources the large prospective cohort study of China Kadoorie buy cipro online without prescription Biobank. The study supplements findings of a robust inverse educational gradient in IHD case fatality …The buy antibiotics cipro has provided limitless opportunities to compare cipro policies across buy cipro online without prescription countries and over time. When the aim is to assess the comparative success of these policies, the comparison requires thinking counterfactually about ‘what would have been’ in some unrealised hypothetical (counterfactual) scenario. Whether generating modelling projections,1 making data-driven comparisons across countries2 or attributing excess harms,3 causal inference often rests on counterfactual comparisons, even buy cipro online without prescription if those comparisons are only implicit. However, in the cipro, counterfactual analyses that are overly simplistic, uninformative or outright flawed have been an epidemic in their own right.

The examples buy cipro online without prescription I explore here are not the worst offenders and my aim is not to criticise them but to use them to illustrate cautionary lessons. By exploring the theory of counterfactuals and common problems with their use, we can learn to do better. Slow conceptual thinking is needed even in times buy cipro online without prescription of fast science.Counterfactuals have played a central role in discussions of causation in philosophy4 and in the health sciences5 and social sciences6 over the past 50 years. According to a framework popular in these disciplines, an intervention causes some outcome if that outcome represents a difference between two hypothetical scenarios in which only the intervention differs. Because the scenarios are mutually incompatible, at least one of them is ‘counterfactual’—that is, contrary to what actually occurs buy cipro online without prescription or ‘counter to fact’.

Philosophers sometimes think about a counterfactual scenario as an imaginary world that is perfectly identical to the actual world except that the intervention is miraculously altered or manipulated with surgical precision. For instance, if the number of buy antibiotics cases would be greater in a possible world that is identical to the real world but in which no cipro policies were implemented, then we can conclude that those policies prevented buy cipro online without prescription buy antibiotics in the actual world.Scientists and policy-makers cannot make a counterfactual comparison directly because other possible worlds are a fiction (or if they are real then they are inaccessible to us), although they can approximate such a comparison through modelling or using real-world data. A key to doing this well is to first explicitly consider what counterfactual comparison we wish to learn about and then ask what modelling or data would faithfully or usefully represent it. Unfortunately, it is easy to lose sight of the relevance of the available data for the intended counterfactual comparison and of the relevance of the counterfactual comparison for decision-making.For instance, buy antibiotics model predictions have frequently been buy cipro online without prescription criticised as inaccurate7 and no doubt many of them are. However, it is important to distinguish ‘projections’ of what would occur under a hypothetical scenario (which may be counterfactual) from ‘forecasts’ of what will actually occur8—a distinction that has not always been marked.

Unlike forecasts (such as weather predictions), the accuracy of a counterfactual projection cannot be accurately judged by buy cipro online without prescription comparing it to what actually occurred. Schroeder9 identifies ambiguities in the way that modellers at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington presented predictions from their epidemic model early on, which sometimes appeared to be projections and sometimes appeared to be forecasts. This kind buy cipro online without prescription of ambiguity makes it difficult to evaluate the performance of a model and to know what upshots to draw from its predictions. For instance, while forecasts can help planners anticipate healthcare resource usage, projections can help index decision-makers choose from among alternative public health policies.10Compartment models like one used by buy cipro online without prescription Imperial College London1 are more clearly ‘projection models’.8 However, the hypothetical nature of projections allows us to entertain scenarios that realistically would not occur, creating comparisons with questionable relevance for decision-making. In March 2020, Imperial College modellers claimed that ‘38.7 million lives could be saved’1 by an aggressive viral-suppression strategy after modelling that scenario (among others) and comparing it to an unmitigated cipro scenario in which no new actions are taken to contain viral spread.

But for evaluating the aggressive suppression strategy, the unmitigated scenario buy cipro online without prescription is an unrealistic counterfactual because in that scenario everyone—including governments and the people—behaves as if there were not a cipro raging. More informative comparisons contrast alternate anticontagion policies or account for the likelihood of evolving anticontagion behaviour even in the absence of aggressive anticontagion policies.With country-level case data available at a click, many people have made policy comparisons across countries along with inferences regarding the effectiveness of those policies. But comparing one country to another to infer the comparative effectiveness of stricter and laxer (or simply different) anticontagion policies is fraught because it buy cipro online without prescription may not faithfully represent a relevant counterfactual comparison.For example, Bendavid et al2 compared eight countries, including the USA and England, that implemented mandatory stay-at-home orders and business closures with Sweden and South Korea, which did not. To evaluate the effect of these policies on the growth of buy antibiotics cases, they subtracted case data in Sweden and South Korea from case data in the other eight countries. In this study, Sweden and South Korea are essentially being used to represent a counterfactual buy cipro online without prescription USA or England that does not implement restrictive policies.

However, there are important differences between the USA/England and Sweden/South Korea, including social and geographic differences and differences in implementation of other cipro interventions. Therefore, it seems highly buy cipro online without prescription plausible that a cross-country comparison involving the USA or England on one side and Sweden or South Korea on the other fails to accurately represent the outcomes in a ‘USA versus counterfactual USA’ or ‘England versus counterfactual England’ comparison. Other studies (which are by no means infallible) seek to mitigate this problem by making before-and-after comparisons within a country, pooling data from many countries and attempting to adjust for their differences or running sensitivity analyses to test various assumptions.11 12Finally, many have calculated or estimated excess harms in 2020–2021 and beyond such as excess all-cause mortality13 or excess ‘deaths of despair’.14 Excess harms are typically estimated by measuring a stable baseline level of harm (or a stable trend) in recent years and comparing it to the amount of harm measured since the cipro began or the amount of harm estimated to occur in future years. It is often reasonable to interpret excess harm figures buy cipro online without prescription as the increase in harm compared with a counterfactual scenario in which the cipro never happened. However, it is often more challenging to attribute this increase to a specific factor such as particular policies.

Such a harm attribution relies on a different counterfactual comparison between two worlds in which the buy antibiotics cipro is similarly occurring but in which buy cipro online without prescription different policies are undertaken. As when measuring beneficial effects, the relevant modelling or data might compare different countries that naturally implemented different polices in 2020–2021 or the same countries before and after the implementation of certain policies.To illustrate, Niedzwiedz et al3 sought to measure the impact of lockdowns in the UK during 2020 on mental health outcomes through survey results in a longitudinal cohort study. By comparing the prevalence of outcomes such buy cipro online without prescription as psychological distress in April 2020 to its prevalence in 2017–2019, they calculated increases or decreases in these outcomes. However, one cannot attribute changes in these outcomes to particular policies from the time trend data alone because, again, in the relevant counterfactual comparison the presence of the cipro is kept constant and only particular policies are allowed to vary.Faced with a devastating cipro rife with examples of countries that followed different paths, regrets about past choices and new decisions to be made, scientists, policy-makers and the public entertain counterfactual comparisons, comparing what did occur to what would have occurred or what could occur in the future under different scenarios. The ubiquity of models and data available to us makes it possible to provide (more or less reliable) representations of our buy cipro online without prescription imagined counterfactual comparisons.

But in thinking counterfactually, we must be wary of letting our imagination exceed our data.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.AcknowledgmentsThe author thanks Sander Greenland for extensive and thoughtful input on multiple drafts of this manuscript as well as anonymous reviewers..

Owing to the multiphase transformations in economy, society, natural environment, lifestyles and healthcare system that China has been experiencing over the past three decades, coupled with the rapid population ageing, China’s burden of non-communicable disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, has been rising drastically.1 Both the incidence of and mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) have been increasing dramatically since 1980s in China.1 In 2019, IHD was the second cause of deaths in the Chinese population, which counted for 17.6% of all deaths and 9.1% of disability-adjusted life years.2 Although there are ample evidence on the socioeconomic disparities in CVD in high-income countries, evidence is still limited in low- and middle-income countries such as China.3The paper by Chen et al is the first comprehensive report on the educational disparities in IHD incidence, case fatality and mortality in can you buy cipro without a prescription China, using data from the large prospective cohort study of China Kadoorie Biobank. The study supplements findings of a robust inverse can you buy cipro without a prescription educational gradient in IHD case fatality …The buy antibiotics cipro has provided limitless opportunities to compare cipro policies across countries and over time. When the aim is to assess the comparative success of these policies, the comparison requires thinking counterfactually about ‘what would have been’ in some unrealised hypothetical (counterfactual) scenario.

Whether generating modelling projections,1 making data-driven can you buy cipro without a prescription comparisons across countries2 or attributing excess harms,3 causal inference often rests on counterfactual comparisons, even if those comparisons are only implicit. However, in the cipro, counterfactual analyses that are overly simplistic, uninformative or outright flawed have been an epidemic in their own right. The examples I explore here are not the worst offenders and my aim is not can you buy cipro without a prescription to criticise them but to use them to illustrate cautionary lessons.

By exploring the theory of counterfactuals and common problems with their use, we can learn to do better. Slow conceptual thinking is needed even in times of fast science.Counterfactuals have played a central role in discussions of causation in philosophy4 and can you buy cipro without a prescription in the health sciences5 and social sciences6 over the past 50 years. According to a framework popular in these disciplines, an intervention causes some outcome if that outcome represents a difference between two hypothetical scenarios in which only the intervention differs.

Because the scenarios are mutually incompatible, at least one of them can you buy cipro without a prescription is ‘counterfactual’—that is, contrary to what actually occurs or ‘counter to fact’. Philosophers sometimes think about a counterfactual scenario as an imaginary world that is perfectly identical to the actual world except that the intervention is miraculously altered or manipulated with surgical precision. For instance, if the number of buy antibiotics cases would be greater in a possible world that is can you buy cipro without a prescription identical to the real world but in which no cipro policies were implemented, then we can conclude that those policies prevented buy antibiotics in the actual world.Scientists and policy-makers cannot make a counterfactual comparison directly because other possible worlds are a fiction (or if they are real then they are inaccessible to us), although they can approximate such a comparison through modelling or using real-world data.

A key to doing this well is to first explicitly consider what counterfactual comparison we wish to learn about and then ask what modelling or data would faithfully or usefully represent it. Unfortunately, it is easy to lose sight of the relevance of the available data for the intended counterfactual comparison can you buy cipro without a prescription and of the relevance of the counterfactual comparison for decision-making.For instance, buy antibiotics model predictions have frequently been criticised as inaccurate7 and no doubt many of them are. However, it is important to distinguish ‘projections’ of what would occur under a hypothetical scenario (which may be counterfactual) from ‘forecasts’ of what will actually occur8—a distinction that has not always been marked.

Unlike forecasts (such as weather predictions), the accuracy of can you buy cipro without a prescription a counterfactual projection cannot be accurately judged by comparing it to what actually occurred. Schroeder9 identifies ambiguities in the way that modellers at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington presented predictions from their epidemic model early on, which sometimes appeared to be projections and sometimes appeared to be forecasts. This kind can you buy cipro without a prescription of ambiguity makes it difficult to evaluate the performance of a model and to know what upshots to draw from its predictions.

For instance, while forecasts can help planners anticipate healthcare resource usage, projections can help decision-makers choose from among alternative public health policies.10Compartment models like one used by Imperial College London1 are can you buy cipro without a prescription more clearly ‘projection models’.8 However, the hypothetical nature of projections allows us to entertain scenarios that realistically would not occur, creating comparisons with questionable relevance for decision-making. In March 2020, Imperial College modellers claimed that ‘38.7 million lives could be saved’1 by an aggressive viral-suppression strategy after modelling that scenario (among others) and comparing it to an unmitigated cipro scenario in which no new actions are taken to contain viral spread. But for can you buy cipro without a prescription evaluating the aggressive suppression strategy, the unmitigated scenario is an unrealistic counterfactual because in that scenario everyone—including governments and the people—behaves as if there were not a cipro raging.

More informative comparisons contrast alternate anticontagion policies or account for the likelihood of evolving anticontagion behaviour even in the absence of aggressive anticontagion policies.With country-level case data available at a click, many people have made policy comparisons across countries along with inferences regarding the effectiveness of those policies. But comparing one country to another to infer the comparative effectiveness of stricter and laxer (or simply different) anticontagion policies is fraught because it may not faithfully represent a relevant counterfactual comparison.For example, can you buy cipro without a prescription Bendavid et al2 compared eight countries, including the USA and England, that implemented mandatory stay-at-home orders and business closures with Sweden and South Korea, which did not. To evaluate the effect of these policies on the growth of buy antibiotics cases, they subtracted case data in Sweden and South Korea from case data in the other eight countries.

In this study, Sweden and South Korea are essentially being used to represent a counterfactual can you buy cipro without a prescription USA or England that does not implement restrictive policies. However, there are important differences between the USA/England and Sweden/South Korea, including social and geographic differences and differences in implementation of other cipro interventions. Therefore, it seems highly plausible that a cross-country comparison involving can you buy cipro without a prescription the USA or England on one side and Sweden or South Korea on the other fails to accurately represent the outcomes in a ‘USA versus counterfactual USA’ or ‘England versus counterfactual England’ comparison.

Other studies (which are by no means infallible) seek to mitigate this problem by making before-and-after comparisons within a country, pooling data from many countries and attempting to adjust for their differences or running sensitivity analyses to test various assumptions.11 12Finally, many have calculated or estimated excess harms in 2020–2021 and beyond such as excess all-cause mortality13 or excess ‘deaths of despair’.14 Excess harms are typically estimated by measuring a stable baseline level of harm (or a stable trend) in recent years and comparing it to the amount of harm measured since the cipro began or the amount of harm estimated to occur in future years. It is often reasonable to interpret excess harm figures as the increase in harm compared with a counterfactual scenario in which the can you buy cipro without a prescription cipro never happened. However, it is often more challenging to attribute this increase to a specific factor such as particular policies.

Such a harm attribution relies on a different counterfactual comparison between two worlds can you buy cipro without a prescription in which the buy antibiotics cipro is similarly occurring but in which different policies are undertaken. As when measuring beneficial effects, the relevant modelling or data might compare different countries that naturally implemented different polices in 2020–2021 or the same countries before and after the implementation of certain policies.To illustrate, Niedzwiedz et al3 sought to measure the impact of lockdowns in the UK during 2020 on mental health outcomes through survey results in a longitudinal cohort study. By comparing the prevalence of outcomes such as psychological distress in can you buy cipro without a prescription April 2020 to its prevalence in 2017–2019, they calculated increases or decreases in these outcomes.

However, one cannot attribute changes in these outcomes to particular policies from the time trend data alone because, again, in the relevant counterfactual comparison the presence of the cipro is kept constant and only particular policies are allowed to vary.Faced with a devastating cipro rife with examples of countries that followed different paths, regrets about past choices and new decisions to be made, scientists, policy-makers and the public entertain counterfactual comparisons, comparing what did occur to what would have occurred or what could occur in the future under different scenarios. The ubiquity of models and data available to us makes it possible to provide (more or can you buy cipro without a prescription less reliable) representations of our imagined counterfactual comparisons. But in thinking counterfactually, we must be wary of letting our imagination exceed our data.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.AcknowledgmentsThe author thanks Sander Greenland for extensive and thoughtful input on multiple drafts of this manuscript as well as anonymous reviewers..

Where can I keep Cipro?

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F). Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.

Cipres de bella suiza

Dear Reader, cipres de bella suiza Thank http://dasilvapinho.com/amoxil-price-comparison you for following the Me&MyDoctor blog. I'm writing to let you know we are moving the public health stories authored by Texas physicians, residents, and medical students, and patients to the Texas Medical Association's social media channels. Be sure to cipres de bella suiza follow us on all our social media accounts (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram) as well as Texas Medicine Today to access these stories and more.

We look forward to seeing you there.Best, Olivia Suarez Me&My Doctor EditorSravya Reddy, MDPediatric Resident at The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical SchoolMember, Texas Medical AssociationHow does the buy antibiotics cipro factor into potentially abusive situations?. To stop the spread of buy antibiotics, we have isolated ourselves into small family units to avoid catching and transmitting the cipro. While saving so many from cipres de bella suiza succumbing to a severe illness, socially isolating has unfortunately posed its own problems.

Among those is the increased threat of harm from intimate partner violence, which includes physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Potential child abuse is an increased threat as well. The impact of this cipro happened so rapidly that society did cipres de bella suiza not have time to think about all the consequences of social isolation before implementing it.

Now those consequences are becoming clear.Social isolation due to the cipro is forcing victims to stay home indefinitely with their abusers. Children and adolescents also have been forced to stay at home since many school districts have made education virtual to keep everyone safe from the cipro. Caregivers are cipres de bella suiza also home because they are working remotely or because they are unemployed.

With the increase in the number of buy antibiotics cases, financial strain due to the economic downturn, and concerns of contracting the cipro and potentially spreading it to family members, these are highly stressful times. Stress leads to an increase in the rate of intimate partner violence. Even those who suffer from it can begin to cipres de bella suiza become abusive to other household members, thus amplifying the abuse in the household.

Some abuse may go unrecognized by the victims themselves. For example, one important and cipres de bella suiza less well-known type of abuse is coercive control. It’s the type of abuse that doesn’t leave a physical mark, but it’s emotional, verbal, and controlling.

Victims often know that something is wrong – but can’t quite identify what it is. Coercive control can still lead to violent cipres de bella suiza physical abuse, and murder. The way in which people report abuse has also been altered by the cipro.People lacking usual in-person contacts (with teachers, co-workers, or doctors) and the fact that some types of coercive abuse are less recognized lead to fewer people reporting that type of abuse.

Child abuse often is discovered during pediatricians’ well-child visits, but the cipro has limited those visits. Many teachers, who might also notice signs of abuse, also are not able cipres de bella suiza to see their students on a daily basis. Some abuse victims visit emergency departments (EDs) in normal times, but ED visits are also down due to buy antibiotics.Local police in China report that intimate partner violence has tripled in the Hubei province.

The United Nations reports it also increased 30% in France as of March 2020 and increased 25% in Argentina. In the cipres de bella suiza U.S. The conversation about increased intimate partner violence during these times has just now started, and we are beginning to gather data.

Preliminary analysis shows police reports of intimate partner violence have increased by 18% to 27% across several U.S. Cities. Individuals affected by addiction have additional stressors and cannot meet with support groups.

Children and adolescents who might otherwise use school as a form of escape from addicted caregivers are no longer able to do so. Financial distress can also play a factor. According to research, the rate of violence among couples with more financial struggles is nearly three and a half times higher than couples with fewer financial concerns.Abuse also can come from siblings.

Any child or adolescent with preexisting behavioral issues is more likely to act out due to seclusion, decreased physical activity, or fewer positive distractions. This could increase risk for others in the household, especially in foster home situations. These other residents might be subject to increased sexual and physical abuse with fewer easy ways to report it.

What can we do about this while abiding by the rules of the cipro?. How can physicians help?. Patients who are victims of intimate partner violence are encouraged to reach out to their doctor.

A doctor visit may be either in person or virtual due to the safety precautions many doctors’ offices are enforcing due to buy antibiotics. During telehealth visits, physicians should always ask standard questions to screen for potential abuse. They can offer information to all patients, regardless of whether they suspect abuse.People could receive more support if we were to expand access to virtual addiction counseling, increase abuse counseling, and launch more campaigns against intimate partner violence.

The best solution might involve a multidisciplinary team, including psychiatrists, social workers, child abuse teams and Child Protective Services, and local school boards. Physicians can help in other ways, too. Doctors can focus on assessing mental health during well-child and acute clinic visits and telehealth visits.

A temporary screening tool for behavioral health during the cipro might be beneficial. Governments could consider allocating resources to telepsychiatry. Many paths can be taken to reduce the burden of mental health issues, and this is an ongoing discussion.

How should physicians approach patients who have or may have experienced intimate partner violence?. Victims of domestic assault can always turn to their physician for guidance on next steps. In response, doctors can:Learn about local resources and have those resources available to your patients;Review safety practices, such as deleting internet browsing history or text messages.

Saving abuse hotline information under other listings, such as a grocery store or pharmacy listing. And creating a new, confidential email account for receiving information about resources or communicating with physicians.If the patient discloses abuse, the clinician and patient can establish signals to identify the presence of an abusive partner during telemedicine appointments.To my fellow physicians, I suggest recognizing and talking about the issue with families.Medical professionals take certain steps if they suspect their patient’s injuries are a result of family violence, or if the patient discloses family violence. Physicians will likely screen a patient, document their conversation with the patient, and offer support and inform the patient of the health risks of staying in an abusive environment, such as severe injuries or even death.

A doctor’s priority is his or her patient’s safety, regardless of why the victim might feel forced to remain in an abusive environment. While physicians only report child and elderly abuse, they should encourage any abused patient to report her or his own case, while also understanding the complexity of the issue. Under no circumstance should any form of abuse be tolerated or suffered.

Any intimate partner violence should be avoided, and reported if possible and safe. My hope is that with more awareness of this rising public health concern, potential victims can better deal with the threat of abuse during this stressful cipro – and hopefully avoid it..

Dear Reader, can you buy cipro without a prescription Thank you for check over here following the Me&MyDoctor blog. I'm writing to let you know we are moving the public health stories authored by Texas physicians, residents, and medical students, and patients to the Texas Medical Association's social media channels. Be sure to follow us on all our social media accounts (Facebook, can you buy cipro without a prescription Twitter, Instagram) as well as Texas Medicine Today to access these stories and more. We look forward to seeing you there.Best, Olivia Suarez Me&My Doctor EditorSravya Reddy, MDPediatric Resident at The University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical SchoolMember, Texas Medical AssociationHow does the buy antibiotics cipro factor into potentially abusive situations?. To stop the spread of buy antibiotics, we have isolated ourselves into small family units to avoid catching and transmitting the cipro.

While saving so many from succumbing to a severe illness, socially can you buy cipro without a prescription isolating has unfortunately posed its own problems. Among those is the increased threat of harm from intimate partner violence, which includes physical violence, sexual violence, stalking, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse. Potential child abuse is an increased threat as well. The impact of this cipro happened so rapidly that society did not have time to think can you buy cipro without a prescription about all the consequences of social isolation before implementing it. Now those consequences are becoming clear.Social isolation due to the cipro is forcing victims to stay home indefinitely with their abusers.

Children and adolescents also have been forced to stay at home since many school districts have made education virtual to keep everyone safe from the cipro. Caregivers are also home because they are working can you buy cipro without a prescription remotely or because they are unemployed. With the increase in the number of buy antibiotics cases, financial strain due to the economic downturn, and concerns of contracting the cipro and potentially spreading it to family members, these are highly stressful times. Stress leads to an increase in the rate of intimate partner violence. Even those who suffer from it can begin can you buy cipro without a prescription to become abusive to other household members, thus amplifying the abuse in the household.

Some abuse may go unrecognized by the victims themselves. For example, one important and less well-known can you buy cipro without a prescription type of abuse is coercive control. It’s the type of abuse that doesn’t leave a physical mark, but it’s emotional, verbal, and controlling. Victims often know that something is wrong – but can’t quite identify what it is. Coercive control can still lead to violent can you buy cipro without a prescription physical abuse, and murder.

The way in which people report abuse has also been altered by the cipro.People lacking usual in-person contacts (with teachers, co-workers, or doctors) and the fact that some types of coercive abuse are less recognized lead to fewer people reporting that type of abuse. Child abuse often is discovered during pediatricians’ well-child visits, but the cipro has limited those visits. Many teachers, who might also notice signs of abuse, also are not able can you buy cipro without a prescription to see their students on a daily basis. Some abuse victims visit emergency departments (EDs) in normal times, but ED visits are also down due to buy antibiotics.Local police in China report that intimate partner violence has tripled in the Hubei province. The United Nations reports it also increased 30% in France as of March 2020 and increased 25% in Argentina.

In the U.S can you buy cipro without a prescription. The conversation about increased intimate partner violence during these times has just now started, and we are beginning to gather data. Preliminary analysis shows police reports of intimate partner violence have increased by 18% to 27% across several U.S. Cities. Individuals affected by addiction have additional stressors and cannot meet with support groups.

Children and adolescents who might otherwise use school as a form of escape from addicted caregivers are no longer able to do so. Financial distress can also play a factor. According to research, the rate of violence among couples with more financial struggles is nearly three and a half times higher than couples with fewer financial concerns.Abuse also can come from siblings. Any child or adolescent with preexisting behavioral issues is more likely to act out due to seclusion, decreased physical activity, or fewer positive distractions. This could increase risk for others in the household, especially in foster home situations.

These other residents might be subject to increased sexual and physical abuse with fewer easy ways to report it. What can we do about this while abiding by the rules of the cipro?. How can physicians help?. Patients who are victims of intimate partner violence are encouraged to reach out to their doctor. A doctor visit may be either in person or virtual due to the safety precautions many doctors’ offices are enforcing due to buy antibiotics.

During telehealth visits, physicians should always ask standard questions to screen for potential abuse. They can offer information to all patients, regardless of whether they suspect abuse.People could receive more support if we were to expand access to virtual addiction counseling, increase abuse counseling, and launch more campaigns against intimate partner violence. The best solution might involve a multidisciplinary team, including psychiatrists, social workers, child abuse teams and Child Protective Services, and local school boards. Physicians can help in other ways, too. Doctors can focus on assessing mental health during well-child and acute clinic visits and telehealth visits.

A temporary screening tool for behavioral health during the cipro might be beneficial. Governments could consider allocating resources to telepsychiatry. Many paths can be taken to reduce the burden of mental health issues, and this is an ongoing discussion. How should physicians approach patients who have or may have experienced intimate partner violence?. Victims of domestic assault can always turn to their physician for guidance on next steps.

In response, doctors can:Learn about local resources and have those resources available to your patients;Review safety practices, such as deleting internet browsing history or text messages. Saving abuse hotline information under other listings, such as a grocery store or pharmacy listing. And creating a new, confidential email account for receiving information about resources or communicating with physicians.If the patient discloses abuse, the clinician and patient can establish signals to identify the presence of an abusive partner during telemedicine appointments.To my fellow physicians, I suggest recognizing and talking about the issue with families.Medical professionals take certain steps if they suspect their patient’s injuries are a result of family violence, or if the patient discloses family violence. Physicians will likely screen a patient, document their conversation with the patient, and offer support and inform the patient of the health risks of staying in an abusive environment, such as severe injuries or even death. A doctor’s priority is his or her patient’s safety, regardless of why the victim might feel forced to remain in an abusive environment.

While physicians only report child and elderly abuse, they should encourage any abused patient to report her or his own case, while also understanding the complexity of the issue. Under no circumstance should any form of abuse be tolerated or suffered. Any intimate partner violence should be avoided, and reported if possible and safe. My hope is that with more awareness of this rising public health concern, potential victims can better deal with the threat of abuse during this stressful cipro – and hopefully avoid it..

Cipro uses treatment

One of the distinguishing features of machines is that they don’t need useful content to sleep, cipro uses treatment unlike humans and any other creature with a central nervous system. Someday though, your toaster might need a nap from time to time, as may your car, fridge and anything else that is revolutionized with the advent of practical artificial intelligence technologies. The change will come when (and if) AI systems that mimic living brains are incorporated into the wide range of devices that currently rely on conventional computers cipro uses treatment and microprocessors to help us through the day. At least that’s the implication of new research that we are conducting in Los Alamos National Laboratory to understand systems that operate much like the neurons inside living brains. Our realization came about as we worked to develop neural networks that closely approximate how humans and other biological systems learn to see.

We were investigating the way that these simulated cipro uses treatment networks respond to unsupervised dictionary training. In this sort of activity, networks set about classifying objects without having prior examples with which to compare them. Imagine handing many images of exotic animals to a child, and asking them to group cipro uses treatment similar ones together. The child might not know what an antelope is, but they would place them in a separate pile from the lions or penguins, for example. It likely would come as no surprise to any teacher of young children that we found that our networks became unstable after continuous periods of learning.

However, when we exposed the networks to states that are analogous to the cipro uses treatment waves that living brains experience during sleep, stability was restored. It was as though we were giving the neural networks the equivalent of a good, long nap. This sort of instability is not a characteristic of all AI cipro uses treatment networks. The issue only arises when training biologically realistic processors, or when trying to understand biology itself. The vast majority of researchers on machine learning, deep learning and AI never encounter this instability because, in the very artificial systems they study, they have the luxury of performing mathematical operations that have no equivalent in living neurons.

Our decision to expose our biologically realistic networks cipro uses treatment to an artificial analogue of sleep was nearly a last-ditch effort to stabilize them. They were spontaneously generating images that were analogous to hallucinations. We experimented with various types of numerical noise, roughly comparable to the static you might encounter between stations while tuning a radio cipro uses treatment. The best results came when we used noise with a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The noise mimics the input received by the neurons in your brain during slow-wave sleep, which is the deep sleep we can’t live without.

The results suggest that in both artificial and natural intelligence systems slow-wave sleep may act to ensure that neurons maintain their stability and do cipro uses treatment not hallucinate. Sleeplike states in neural networks are very different from the mode your PC enters after some set period of inactivity. A conventional computer that has gone to “sleep” is effectively cipro uses treatment in suspended animation, with all computational activity frozen in time. And the age-old advice from the IT department to try “turning your computer off and then on again” when a PC gets glitchy is tantamount to exposing your machine to a brief period of brain death. That kind of sleep mode would do nothing to settle an unstable neural network.

And power cycling would simply reset the network and undo any prior training, effectively giving the network a severe case of cipro uses treatment amnesia. In neural networks as well as living creatures, a sleeplike state is not inactivity, but a different kind of activity that is crucial to the proper functioning of neurons. We are just starting to investigate an additional benefit of artificial sleep in our simulations cipro uses treatment. Often, a few neurons in a simulated network fail to function at all when a simulation is started. We have found that applying artificial sleep states seems to reset idle neurons to ensure they become functioning components in the network.

As researchers build networks that increasingly resemble cipro uses treatment living nervous systems, it should probably come as little surprise that they seem to need sleep as much as we do. Similarly, we expect that sophisticated AI systems will help us to more fully understand sleep and other characteristics in biological systems. The napping toaster of the future cipro uses treatment may provide novel insights into the workings of our brains—in addition to a warm and crispy breakfast food.U.S. Western Joshua trees will get a year of temporary endangered species status in California while the state considers permanently listing the distinctive succulents as the first-ever plant species protected because of climate change–related threat. PANAMA A tropical forest ground survey revealed that one lightning strike often damages more than 20 trees, a quarter of which can die within a year.

Researchers combined this finding with satellite data to estimate that lightning kills 200 million tropical trees worldwide every year—a significant cipro uses treatment cause of their demise. GREENLAND Climate researchers discovered records of an automatic weather station that measured −93.3 degrees Fahrenheit one day in December 1991—a temperature colder than the average on Mars and the coldest ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. ITALY Scientists have examined a cipro uses treatment shark found south of Sardinia that somehow survived to three years old without skin or teeth. They concluded it was a genetic mutation and plan to check nearby sediment for potential pollutant causes. CHINA Newly discovered and pristinely preserved fossils suggest two sleeping dinosaurs were buried alive in an underground burrow 125 million years ago.

The burrow may have collapsed under volcanic cipro uses treatment debris. AUSTRALIA A new study shows how Australian grasslands' strange barren patches—called fairy circles—are landscaped by the grasses themselves. Baking heat cipro uses treatment creates a hard clay crust over a patch of ground. Water runs off of it, forming a more welcoming zone at its edges that grasses bolster as they grow and cool the soil.When I started writing about science decades ago, artificial intelligence seemed ascendant. IEEE Spectrum, the technology magazine for which I worked, produced a special issue on how AI would transform the world.

I edited an article in which computer scientist Frederick Hayes-Roth predicted that AI cipro uses treatment would soon replace experts in law, medicine, finance and other professions. That was in 1984. Not long afterward, the exuberance gave way to a slump known as an “AI winter,” when disillusionment set in cipro uses treatment and funding declined. Years later, doing research for my book The Undiscovered Mind, I tracked Hayes-Roth down to ask how he thought his predictions had held up. He laughed and replied, “You’ve got a mean streak.” AI had not lived up to expectations, he acknowledged.

Our minds are hard to replicate, because we are “very, very complicated systems that are both evolved and adapted through learning to deal well and differentially with dozens of variables at one time.” Algorithms that can perform a specialized task, like cipro uses treatment playing chess, cannot be easily adapted for other purposes. €œIt is an example of what is called nonrecurrent engineering,” Hayes-Roth explained. That was cipro uses treatment 1998. Today, according to some measures, AI is booming once again. Programs such as voice and face recognition are embedded in cell phones, televisions, cars and countless other consumer products.

Clever algorithms help me choose a Christmas present for my girlfriend, find my daughter’s building in cipro uses treatment Brooklyn and gather information for columns like this one. Venture-capital investments in AI doubled between 2017 and 2018 to $40 billion, according to WIRED. A Price Waterhouse study estimates that by 2030 AI will boost global economic output by cipro uses treatment more than $15 trillion, “more than the current output of China and India combined.” In fact, some observers fear that AI is moving too fast. New York Times columnist Farhad Manjoo calls an AI-based reading and writing program, GPT-3, “amazing, spooky, humbling and more than a little terrifying.” Someday, he frets, he might be “put out to pasture by a machine.” Neuroscientist Christof Koch has suggested that we might need computer chips implanted in our brains to help us keep up with intelligent machines. Elon Musk made headlines in 2018 when he warned that “superintelligent” AI, much smarter than we are, represents “the single biggest existential crisis that we face.” (Really?.

Worse cipro uses treatment than climate change?. Nuclear weapons?. Psychopathic cipro uses treatment politicians?. I suspect that Musk, who has invested in AI, is trying to promote the technology with his over-the-top fearmongering.) Experts are pushing back against the hype, pointing out that many alleged advances in AI are based on flimsy evidence. Last January, for example, a team from Google Health claimed in Nature that their AI program had outperformed humans in diagnosing breast cancer.

In October, a group led by Benjamin Haibe-Kains, a computational genomics researcher, criticized the Google health paper, arguing that the “lack of details of the methods and algorithm code undermines its scientific value.” Haibe-Kains complained to Technology Review that the Google Health report is cipro uses treatment “more an advertisement for cool technology” than a legitimate, reproducible scientific study. The same is true of other reported advances, he said. Indeed, artificial intelligence, like biomedicine and other fields, has become mired in a replication crisis cipro uses treatment. Researchers make dramatic claims that cannot be tested, because researchers—especially those in industry—do not disclose their algorithms. One recent review found that only 15 percent of AI studies shared their code.

There are also cipro uses treatment signs that investments in AI are not paying off. Technology analyst Jeffrey Funk recently examined 40 start-up companies developing AI for health care, manufacturing, energy, finance, cybersecurity, transportation and other industries. Many of them were not “nearly as valuable to society as all the hype would suggest,” Funk reports in IEEE Spectrum. Advances in AI “are unlikely to be nearly as disruptive—for companies, for workers, or for the economy as a whole—as many observers have cipro uses treatment been arguing.” Science reports that “core progress in AI has stalled in some fields,” such as information retrieval and product recommendation. A study of algorithms used to improve the performance of neural networks found “no clear evidence of performance improvements over a 10-year period.” The longstanding goal of “general” artificial intelligence, possessing the broad knowledge and learning capacity to solve a variety of real-world problems, as humans do, remains elusive.

€œWe have machines that learn in a very narrow way,” Yoshua Bengio, a pioneer cipro uses treatment in the AI approach called deep learning, recently complained in WIRED. €œThey need much more data to learn a task than human examples of intelligence, and they still make stupid mistakes.” Writing in The Gradient, an online magazine devoted to tech, AI entrepreneur and writer Gary Marcus accuses AI leaders as well as the media of exaggerating the field’s progress. AI-based autonomous cars, fake news detectors, diagnostic programs and chatbots have all been oversold, Marcus contends. He warns that “if and when the public, governments, and investment community recognize that they have been sold an unrealistic picture of AI’s strengths and weaknesses that doesn't match reality, a new AI winter may commence.” Another AI veteran and writer, Erik Larson, questions the “myth” that one day AI will inevitably cipro uses treatment equal or surpass human intelligence. In The Myth of Artificial Intelligence.

Why Computers Can’t Think the Way We Do, scheduled to be released by Harvard University Press in April, Larson argues that “success with narrow applications cipro uses treatment gets us not one step closer to general intelligence.” Larson says “the actual science of AI (as opposed to the pseudoscience of Hollywood and science fiction novelists) has uncovered a very large mystery at the heart of intelligence, which no one currently has a clue how to solve. Put bluntly. All evidence suggests that human and machine intelligence are radically different. And yet cipro uses treatment the myth of inevitability persists.” When I first started writing about science, I believed the myth of AI. One day, surely, researchers would achieve the goal of a flexible, supersmart, all-purpose artificial intelligence, like HAL.

Given rapid advances in computer hardware and software, it was only a matter of cipro uses treatment time. And who was I to doubt authorities like Marvin Minsky?. Gradually, I became an AI doubter, as I realized that our minds—in spite of enormous advances in neuroscience, genetics, cognitive science and, yes, artificial intelligence—remain as mysterious as ever. Here’s the cipro uses treatment paradox. Machines are becoming undeniably smarter—and humans, it seems lately, more stupid, and yet machines will never equal, let alone surpass, our intelligence.

They will always remain mere machines cipro uses treatment. That’s my guess, and my hope. Further Reading. How Would cipro uses treatment AI Cover an AI Conference?. Do We Need Brain Implants to Keep Up with Robots?.

The Many Minds of Marvin Minsky cipro uses treatment (R.I.P.) The Singularity and the Neural Code Who Wants to Be a Cyborg?. Mind-Body ProblemsThe items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about buy antibiotics.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign up here. Canada has pre-ordered more doses per person of treatments against antibiotics than have any other countries and purchasing groups, reports freelance science journalist Asher Mullard for Nature (11/30/20). The U.S cipro uses treatment. And UK come in 2nd and 3rd.

The story includes cipro uses treatment 2 graphics that illustrate the pre-ordering landscape. €œMany people in low-income countries might have to wait until 2023 or 2024 for vaccination, according to estimates from the Duke Global Health Innovation Center,” Mullard writes. The makers of three treatments that look like they will be distributed widely in 2021 (AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Pfizer/BioNTech) forecast making an estimated total of 5.3 billion doses next year. That would cover between 2.6 cipro uses treatment billion and 3.1 billion people, the story states. Most of those doses are already spoken for by individual, largely affluent or middle-income countries, the story states, leaving little for low- and middle-income nations, “most of which seem to be relying on contributions from” a joint venture called COVAX.

The purchasing cipro uses treatment and distribution group was formed to ensure equitable global access to treatments against antibiotics. Virologist and treatment researcher Shane Crotty at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology tweeted a thread on 11/27/20 discussing the safety of RNA treatments (like those being tested by Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech on large numbers of people and expected to receive emergency-use approval soon by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Crotty writes that RNA is analogous in some ways to expiring messages on social media platforms, and that RNA treatments are “temporary messages instructing cells to make one viral protein temporarily.” He adds, “It takes 25 different antibiotics proteins [complex molecules] to make a antibiotics, so there is no worry about the RNA making a cipro.” Below is an estimated timeline for antibiotics treatment distribution in cipro uses treatment the U.S., based on a thread tweeted by Dr. Ashish Jha, dean of the Brown University School of Public Health, on 11/22/20.

Jha drew the details in part from a televised interview between CNN’s cipro uses treatment Jake Tapper and Dr. Moncef Slaoui, chief scientific advisor to Operation Warp Speed (the U.S.’s federally funded treatment development effort). Https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1330519144178085899.html First public immunizations (health care workers and long-term care facility residents, if U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s 12/2/20 recommendations are followed) would cipro uses treatment start Dec. 11 or 12;perhaps 20 million people in U.S.

Vaccinated by end cipro uses treatment of December. About 30 million more people in U.S. Vaccinated by end of January 2021, and combined with total people who have recovered from s, “that’ll slow spread,” Jha writes;about 40 percent immunity in the U.S. Population by cipro uses treatment February, bringing “meaningfully slower” spread of antibiotics. treatments widely available in U.S.

By April/May 2021 Moderna says it will soon start testing its messenger-RNA treatment against antibiotics in 3,000 teenagers, reports Denise Grady cipro uses treatment at The New York Times (12/2/20). AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech already made similar announcements for testing their treatments in children, the story states. All three treatment groups each recently announced that their treatments are effective in large-scale experiments with adults, but “no treatment can be widely given to children until it has been tested in them,” Grady writes. €œtreatments meant for both adults and children are generally tested first in adults to help make sure they are safe for pediatric trials cipro uses treatment [experiments].” treatments that work well in adults tend to also work well in children, with some dosing adjustments, according to Dr. Paul Offit, a treatment researcher at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Grady writes.

Https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/02/health/buy antibiotics-Moderna-treatment-children.html. Two recent studies suggest that wearing even an N95 mask during vigorous exercise did not result in workouts that felt harder or actually were more physiologically draining, writes Gretchen Reynolds at The New York Times (11/18/20). One of the studies found more carbon dioxide in the breath of N95-masked exercisers, but none of the subjects complained of headaches or breathing issues, the story states. The results came as a surprise to the study subjects, Reynolds writes. The studies were conducted on healthy, active adults, so it is not clear if the findings would be the same in people who are less healthy or less active or who have breathing problems, the story states.

€œThe findings suggest that anyone who hesitates to wear a mask during exercise should try one — although not an N95 mask,” the story describes one of the study authors, an internal medicine physician at Rambam Health Care Campus, as saying. Those masks slightly increase exercisers’ carbon dioxide levels and should be reserved for health care workers anyway, states the story, which also was published in Spanish. As anticipated, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) released recommendations (on 12/2/20) that include shortening the quarantine period from 14 days to as few as 7 days, at least for people who think they’ve could’ve been exposed to antibiotics but then test negative, reports Colin Dwyer at NPR. €œPeople should still watch closely for symptoms — such as a fever, a cough or a loss of taste or smell — for a full 14 days after possible exposure,” according to the CDC’s incident manager for its buy antibiotics response, Dwyer writes.

The change is meant to increase the odds that people will comply with the agency’s quarantine recommendations, the story states. It also “allows health officials to focus their efforts on the period of time that people are most likely to become contagious,” the story quotes epidemiologist Jennifer Nuzzo of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security as saying (12/2/20). And if you’re confused about the meaning of quarantine versus isolation, or about the distinction between asymptomatic and presymptomatic, and the like, check out this helpful piece, “Clarifying buy antibiotics terminology,” by Lindsay Smith Rogers for Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (11/23/20). An 11/16/20 Q&A at Scientific American with Andrew Huberman, a Stanford University neuroscientist who studies the visual system, details how our vision and our breathing can “offer us easy and accessible releases from stress,” particularly in the context of the cipro challenges and overall intensity of 2020. For instance, emerging research suggests that altering our breathing can alter brain regions responsible for arousal and panic, writes freelance science journalist Jessica Wapner in the introduction to the Q&A.

And when we see stressful or exciting news, it increases our heart rate and breathing, Huberman says. You don’t want to miss this section. Our eyes are “not connected to the brain. They are the brain,” Huberman says. €œDuring development, the eyes are part of the embryonic forebrain.

Your eyes get extruded from the skull during the first trimester, and then they reconnect to the rest of the brain.” One of the tips Huberman mentions. One can turn off their brain's stress response by changing the way we are viewing our environment, specifically by taking on a panoramic view that allows you to see “far into the periphery.” Also, “every time you exhale, you’re slowing down the heart rate,” he says. Check out Betsy Ladyzhets's weekly “buy antibiotics Data Dispatch, a newsletter written to help people make sense of myriad unstandardized (and often untrustworthy) cipro data sources. The publication provides news on public health agencies, resources for understanding and communicating about the cipro, context on how buy antibiotics data experts are thinking about major issues, and occasional interviews or original analysis. Ladyzhets is a data journalist and science writer who’s been managing her publication’s cipro coverage and volunteering at the buy antibiotics Tracking Project since the spring.

All data sources featured in the newsletter since its July inception are compiled in a public Google spreadsheet, and Ladyzhets is working on other supplemental resources that may be useful for journalists, community leaders, and data nerds alike. You might enjoy, “Ten reasons why my New York bodega is better than your 7-Eleven,” by Caroline Ulwick for McSweeney’s. .Governments around the world are gearing up to use an old regulatory tool for a new purpose. Protecting the economy from climate change. Financial regulators for years have used “stress tests” to gauge whether major banks are prepared to stay afloat amid extreme, unanticipated—yet entirely plausible—economic shocks.

They were widely implemented in the United States and abroad following the 2007-08 global financial crisis to help prevent systemwide catastrophes down the line. Economists, environmentalists and advisers to President-elect Joe Biden warn that global warming could spur that next catastrophe. The climate finance proponents among them argue that major lenders should be required to undergo climate-related stress testing before it’s too late. Standing in the way are a slew of challenges—including insufficient corporate climate disclosures, still-developing climate projections and the banking sector itself, which has already signaled opposition to the idea. There’s a chance that banks could use their lobbying might to delay or water down future climate finance regulations, advocates say.

But global momentum around the issue—and the incoming Biden administration—could mean that mandated climate stress testing in the United States isn’t far off. €œIt’s pretty tough to imagine that regulators wouldn’t do this, because I don’t see how they can act in an informed way if they don’t know what the problem is. And the only way you know the problem is by looking under the hood of [banks’] balance sheets,” said Justin Guay, director of global climate strategy at the Sunrise Project. €œThere is a very clear consensus agreement among regulators globally that climate change is a systemic risk,” Guay added. €œSo that ship has sailed.” According to Monsur Hussain, who heads financial institution research at Fitch Ratings Inc., the main point of stress testing is to help regulators assess how a financial system or firm would cope under immense pressure—climate-related or otherwise.

They do so by modeling the impacts that an economic shock would have on a bank’s profitability and balance sheet over a two- or three-year period. The United States currently requires financial firms to conduct stress tests with a “pass-or-fail threshold,” Hussain said. If a bank does not have enough capital on hand to stay in business during the simulated crisis, it fails. The Federal Reserve then requires firms that fail the tests to set aside extra capital to prevent the hypothetical situation from taking place in real life. Climate finance proponents say regulators in the United States need to take a similar approach to climate change.

They would do so by way of climate scenarios that consider how physical risks—like extreme weather events—and the transition to a low-carbon economy could affect banks’ loans to vulnerable businesses and sectors. Between 2016 and 2019, for instance, companies in the fossil fuel industry received more than $2.7 trillion in financing from 35 major banks, according to a report compiled by a group of environmental organizations. €œIf we have two hurricanes, a wildfire and droughts in the farming country, will our banking system be able to withstand that?. We don’t really know,” said Sarah Dougherty, a former researcher at the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta who is now with the Natural Resources Defense Council. €˜A fundamental shift’ In June, a coalition of central banks—dubbed the Network for Greening the Financial System—published stress testing guidance for regulators around the world.

The document included several high-level climate stress testing scenarios. Among them was an “orderly transition” scenario, which would help regulators gauge how much money banks would lose if governments set a price on carbon this year—and achieved net-zero emissions by 2050. But the NGFS also included a “hot house world” scenario, in which no additional emissions policies are adopted and the world blows past the warming goals enshrined in the Paris Agreement—leading to severe climate impacts. Central banks in countries including the United Kingdom, France and Japan have already unveiled their plans to roll out stress tests to gauge financial firms’ exposure to global warming. The U.S.

Central bank is much further behind its global peers on the issue and hasn’t yet indicated that it intends to do the same. But there are signs of progress. The Federal Reserve in November acknowledged for the first time in its Financial Stability Report that global warming “is likely to increase financial shocks and financial system vulnerabilities” (Greenwire, Nov. 10). Also notable is the incoming Biden administration’s commitment to taking an all-of-government approach to climate change, including by tapping a number of climate hawks to fill high-level economic positions (Climatewire, Nov.

25). €œFor the first time, potentially ever, finance policy is being used as climate policy, which is a fundamental shift—it never has been in the past,” Guay said. The incoming administration and the Fed’s change in tone do not eliminate the challenges inherent to measuring how much climate change could cost banks in the long term. Dougherty, Hussain and the Bank Policy Institute, a lobbying group, are among those who have emphasized that climate stress tests remain in their infancy—in part due to the reality that measuring banks’ exposure to global warming is far more complicated than assessing other hypothetical shocks. That’s for a few reasons.

Climate stress tests would need to measure banks’ risk over a longer period. That’s because some climate impacts—such as sea-level rise and the transition to a low-carbon economy—will take place over several decades rather than several years. Beyond that, developing climate-related scenarios would require banks to make a variety of difficult assumptions—including predicting how climate change would affect each portfolio company, how different sectors will adapt to rising temperatures, and what climate policies will be passed in the United States and elsewhere. €˜Bridge too far’ There’s widespread agreement that those factors make climate stress testing complex. But there’s less consensus regarding what should be done with stress tests’ results—and whether they should be required at all.

Greg Baer, the chief executive of BPI—whose members include Bank of America Corp., Citibank and Goldman Sachs Group Inc.—said in a recent op-ed that “banks have an important role to play in managing a transition away from carbon.” But in an interview with E&E News, Baer said BPI’s stance is that climate stress tests are a “bridge too far.” “Trying to capture climate change effects decades in advance—without considering the extraordinary adaptability of the financial system and economy—and incorporating those results into the regulatory capital framework is no easier than predicting how cipros or machine learning will affect banks by 2050,” BPI argued in a recent research note. For those reasons and more, the trade association concluded that it’s premature to incorporate climate change scenarios into existing macroeconomic stress tests—“and even more so to link climate stress test[s] to capital requirements.” JPMorgan Chase &. Co., Bank of America and the Financial Services Forum—another banking trade group—did not respond to questions about their organizations’ stance on climate stress testing. A Wells Fargo &. Co.

Spokesperson declined to comment. A spokesperson for the American Bankers Association, another trade group, said in an email that quantifying climate impacts on financial firms “is in its early stages” and that “any potential changes to the regulatory framework, no matter how well-intended, must be thoroughly understood to avoid any unintended consequences.” Climate finance experts and advocates disagree with BPI’s position—or at least parts of it. A global meltdown?. Financial regulatory expert Gregg Gelzinis, of the left-leaning Center for American Progress, acknowledged that measuring climate risk is riddled with challenges and that climate stress tests shouldn’t necessarily be used to adjust banks’ capital requirements right off the bat. €œYes, we are projecting out significantly into the future, and yes, a bank’s balance sheet as it stands in 2020 is going to be different than a bank’s balance sheet as it stands in 2030, or 2040, or 2050,” Gelzinis said.

But he disagreed that those challenges are insurmountable—or that they would render the tests’ results useless. €œIf climate stress tests show that 15 years from now, you’re expected to have ... Severe losses on your carbon-sensitive assets—things like fossil fuel bonds and fossil fuel loans—and it encourages you to today shift away from those assets, that’s a positive outcome,” Gelzinis added. He also warned against regulators implementing stress tests that lack any consequences at all, amounting to what he called “completely toothless exercises.” In his view, banks think about climate stress tests as “maybe an interesting informational exercise. But they don’t want it in any way to impact how much capital they have to fund themselves with, which is one of the most powerful financial regulatory tools in regulators’ arsenal to bolster the resiliency of these banks.” Even if not immediately, he said, climate stress tests should lay the groundwork for more aggressive regulatory measures that would actively safeguard the financial system to avoid an economic meltdown in the future.

Dougherty, the former Fed researcher, agreed. €œOf course they don’t want to do something that might make them do more work and hold more capital in reserve,” she said. €œBut we also don’t want them to fail and take the entire financial system down with them.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net..

One of the distinguishing features of machines is that they don’t need to sleep, unlike where can i get cipro humans and any other creature with a central nervous system can you buy cipro without a prescription. Someday though, your toaster might need a nap from time to time, as may your car, fridge and anything else that is revolutionized with the advent of practical artificial intelligence technologies. The change will come when (and if) AI systems that mimic living brains are incorporated into the wide range of devices that currently can you buy cipro without a prescription rely on conventional computers and microprocessors to help us through the day. At least that’s the implication of new research that we are conducting in Los Alamos National Laboratory to understand systems that operate much like the neurons inside living brains.

Our realization came about as we worked to develop neural networks that closely approximate how humans and other biological systems learn to see. We were can you buy cipro without a prescription investigating the way that these simulated networks respond to unsupervised dictionary training. In this sort of activity, networks set about classifying objects without having prior examples with which to compare them. Imagine handing many images of exotic animals to a can you buy cipro without a prescription child, and asking them to group similar ones together.

The child might not know what an antelope is, but they would place them in a separate pile from the lions or penguins, for example. It likely would come as no surprise to any teacher of young children that we found that our networks became unstable after continuous periods of learning. However, when we can you buy cipro without a prescription exposed the networks to states that are analogous to the waves that living brains experience during sleep, stability was restored. It was as though we were giving the neural networks the equivalent of a good, long nap.

This sort of instability is not a can you buy cipro without a prescription characteristic of all AI networks. The issue only arises when training biologically realistic processors, or when trying to understand biology itself. The vast majority of researchers on machine learning, deep learning and AI never encounter this instability because, in the very artificial systems they study, they have the luxury of performing mathematical operations that have no equivalent in living neurons. Our decision to expose our biologically realistic networks to an artificial analogue of sleep can you buy cipro without a prescription was nearly a last-ditch effort to stabilize them.

They were spontaneously generating images that were analogous to hallucinations. We experimented can you buy cipro without a prescription with various types of numerical noise, roughly comparable to the static you might encounter between stations while tuning a radio. The best results came when we used noise with a wide range of frequencies and amplitudes. The noise mimics the input received by the neurons in your brain during slow-wave sleep, which is the deep sleep we can’t live without.

The results suggest that in both artificial and natural can you buy cipro without a prescription intelligence systems slow-wave sleep may act to ensure that neurons maintain their stability and do not hallucinate. Sleeplike states in neural networks are very different from the mode your PC enters after some set period of inactivity. A conventional can you buy cipro without a prescription computer that has gone to “sleep” is effectively in suspended animation, with all computational activity frozen in time. And the age-old advice from the IT department to try “turning your computer off and then on again” when a PC gets glitchy is tantamount to exposing your machine to a brief period of brain death.

That kind of sleep mode would do nothing to settle an unstable neural network. And power can you buy cipro without a prescription cycling would simply reset the network and undo any prior training, effectively giving the network a severe case of amnesia. In neural networks as well as living creatures, a sleeplike state is not inactivity, but a different kind of activity that is crucial to the proper functioning of neurons. We are just starting to investigate an additional benefit of artificial can you buy cipro without a prescription sleep in our simulations.

Often, a few neurons in a simulated network fail to function at all when a simulation is started. We have found that applying artificial sleep states seems to reset idle neurons to ensure they become functioning components in the network. As researchers build networks that increasingly resemble living nervous systems, it should can you buy cipro without a prescription probably come as little surprise that they seem to need sleep as much as we do. Similarly, we expect that sophisticated AI systems will help us to more fully understand sleep and other characteristics in biological systems.

The napping toaster of the future may provide novel insights into the workings of our brains—in addition to a warm and can you buy cipro without a prescription crispy breakfast food.U.S. Western Joshua trees will get a year of temporary endangered species status in California while the state considers permanently listing the distinctive succulents as the first-ever plant species protected because of climate change–related threat. PANAMA A tropical forest ground survey revealed that one lightning strike often damages more than 20 trees, a quarter of which can die within a year. Researchers combined this finding with satellite data to estimate that lightning kills 200 million tropical trees worldwide every year—a significant can you buy cipro without a prescription cause of their demise.

GREENLAND Climate researchers discovered records of an automatic weather station that measured −93.3 degrees Fahrenheit one day in December 1991—a temperature colder than the average on Mars and the coldest ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere. ITALY Scientists have examined a shark found south can you buy cipro without a prescription of Sardinia that somehow survived to three years old without skin or teeth. They concluded it was a genetic mutation and plan to check nearby sediment for potential pollutant causes. CHINA Newly discovered and pristinely preserved fossils suggest two sleeping dinosaurs were buried alive in an underground burrow 125 million years ago.

The burrow may have collapsed under volcanic can you buy cipro without a prescription debris. AUSTRALIA A new study shows how Australian grasslands' strange barren patches—called fairy circles—are landscaped by the grasses themselves. Baking heat creates a hard clay crust over can you buy cipro without a prescription a patch of ground. Water runs off of it, forming a more welcoming zone at its edges that grasses bolster as they grow and cool the soil.When I started writing about science decades ago, artificial intelligence seemed ascendant.

IEEE Spectrum, the technology magazine for which I worked, produced a special issue on how AI would transform the world. I edited can you buy cipro without a prescription an article in which computer scientist Frederick Hayes-Roth predicted that AI would soon replace experts in law, medicine, finance and other professions. That was in 1984. Not long afterward, can you buy cipro without a prescription the exuberance gave way to a slump known as an “AI winter,” when disillusionment set in and funding declined.

Years later, doing research for my book The Undiscovered Mind, I tracked Hayes-Roth down to ask how he thought his predictions had held up. He laughed and replied, “You’ve got a mean streak.” AI had not lived up to expectations, he acknowledged. Our minds are hard to replicate, because we can you buy cipro without a prescription are “very, very complicated systems that are both evolved and adapted through learning to deal well and differentially with dozens of variables at one time.” Algorithms that can perform a specialized task, like playing chess, cannot be easily adapted for other purposes. €œIt is an example of what is called nonrecurrent engineering,” Hayes-Roth explained.

That was can you buy cipro without a prescription 1998. Today, according to some measures, AI is booming once again. Programs such as voice and face recognition are embedded in cell phones, televisions, cars and countless other consumer products. Clever algorithms help me choose a Christmas present for my girlfriend, find can you buy cipro without a prescription my daughter’s building in Brooklyn and gather information for columns like this one.

Venture-capital investments in AI doubled between 2017 and 2018 to $40 billion, according to WIRED. A Price Waterhouse study estimates that by 2030 AI will boost global economic output by more than $15 trillion, “more can you buy cipro without a prescription than the current output of China and India combined.” In fact, some observers fear that AI is moving too fast. New York Times columnist Farhad Manjoo calls an AI-based reading and writing program, GPT-3, “amazing, spooky, humbling and more than a little terrifying.” Someday, he frets, he might be “put out to pasture by a machine.” Neuroscientist Christof Koch has suggested that we might need computer chips implanted in our brains to help us keep up with intelligent machines. Elon Musk made headlines in 2018 when he warned that “superintelligent” AI, much smarter than we are, represents “the single biggest existential crisis that we face.” (Really?.

Worse than can you buy cipro without a prescription climate change?. Nuclear weapons?. Psychopathic politicians? can you buy cipro without a prescription. I suspect that Musk, who has invested in AI, is trying to promote the technology with his over-the-top fearmongering.) Experts are pushing back against the hype, pointing out that many alleged advances in AI are based on flimsy evidence.

Last January, for example, a team from Google Health claimed in Nature that their AI program had outperformed humans in diagnosing breast cancer. In October, a group led by Benjamin Haibe-Kains, a computational genomics researcher, criticized the Google health paper, arguing that the “lack of details of the methods and algorithm code undermines its scientific value.” Haibe-Kains complained to Technology Review can you buy cipro without a prescription that the Google Health report is “more an advertisement for cool technology” than a legitimate, reproducible scientific study. The same is true of other reported advances, he said. Indeed, artificial intelligence, like biomedicine and other fields, has become mired in a can you buy cipro without a prescription replication crisis.

Researchers make dramatic claims that cannot be tested, because researchers—especially those in industry—do not disclose their algorithms. One recent review found that only 15 percent of AI studies shared their code. There are also signs that investments in AI are not paying off can you buy cipro without a prescription. Technology analyst Jeffrey Funk recently examined 40 start-up companies developing AI for health care, manufacturing, energy, finance, cybersecurity, transportation and other industries.

Many of them were not “nearly as valuable to society as all the hype would suggest,” Funk reports in IEEE Spectrum. Advances in can you buy cipro without a prescription AI “are unlikely to be nearly as disruptive—for companies, for workers, or for the economy as a whole—as many observers have been arguing.” Science reports that “core progress in AI has stalled in some fields,” such as information retrieval and product recommendation. A study of algorithms used to improve the performance of neural networks found “no clear evidence of performance improvements over a 10-year period.” The longstanding goal of “general” artificial intelligence, possessing the broad knowledge and learning capacity to solve a variety of real-world problems, as humans do, remains elusive. €œWe have machines that learn in a very can you buy cipro without a prescription narrow way,” Yoshua Bengio, a pioneer in the AI approach called deep learning, recently complained in WIRED.

€œThey need much more data to learn a task than human examples of intelligence, and they still make stupid mistakes.” Writing in The Gradient, an online magazine devoted to tech, AI entrepreneur and writer Gary Marcus accuses AI leaders as well as the media of exaggerating the field’s progress. AI-based autonomous cars, fake news detectors, diagnostic programs and chatbots have all been oversold, Marcus contends. He warns that “if and when the public, governments, and investment community recognize that they have been sold an unrealistic picture of AI’s strengths and can you buy cipro without a prescription weaknesses that doesn't match reality, a new AI winter may commence.” Another AI veteran and writer, Erik Larson, questions the “myth” that one day AI will inevitably equal or surpass human intelligence. In The Myth of Artificial Intelligence.

Why Computers Can’t Think the Way We Do, scheduled to be released by Harvard University Press in April, Larson argues that “success with narrow applications gets us not one step closer to general intelligence.” Larson says “the actual science of AI (as opposed to the pseudoscience of Hollywood and science fiction novelists) has uncovered a very large mystery at the heart of intelligence, which no one can you buy cipro without a prescription currently has a clue how to solve. Put bluntly. All evidence suggests that human and machine intelligence are radically different. And yet the myth of inevitability persists.” When I first started writing about science, I can you buy cipro without a prescription believed the myth of AI.

One day, surely, researchers would achieve the goal of a flexible, supersmart, all-purpose artificial intelligence, like HAL. Given rapid advances in can you buy cipro without a prescription computer hardware and software, it was only a matter of time. And who was I to doubt authorities like Marvin Minsky?. Gradually, I became an AI doubter, as I realized that our minds—in spite of enormous advances in neuroscience, genetics, cognitive science and, yes, artificial intelligence—remain as mysterious as ever.

Here’s the can you buy cipro without a prescription paradox. Machines are becoming undeniably smarter—and humans, it seems lately, more stupid, and yet machines will never equal, let alone surpass, our intelligence. They will always remain can you buy cipro without a prescription mere machines. That’s my guess, and my hope.

Further Reading. How Would AI can you buy cipro without a prescription Cover an AI Conference?. Do We Need Brain Implants to Keep Up with Robots?. The Many Minds of Marvin Minsky can you buy cipro without a prescription (R.I.P.) The Singularity and the Neural Code Who Wants to Be a Cyborg?.

Mind-Body ProblemsThe items below are highlights from the free newsletter, “Smart, useful, science stuff about buy antibiotics.” To receive newsletter issues daily in your inbox, sign up here. Canada has pre-ordered more doses per person of treatments against antibiotics than have any other countries and purchasing groups, reports freelance science journalist Asher Mullard for Nature (11/30/20). The U.S can you buy cipro without a prescription. And UK come in 2nd and 3rd.

The story includes 2 graphics that illustrate the pre-ordering landscape can you buy cipro without a prescription. €œMany people in low-income countries might have to wait until 2023 or 2024 for vaccination, according to estimates from the Duke Global Health Innovation Center,” Mullard writes. The makers of three treatments that look like they will be distributed widely in 2021 (AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Pfizer/BioNTech) forecast making an estimated total of 5.3 billion doses next year. That would cover between 2.6 billion and 3.1 billion people, the story states can you buy cipro without a prescription.

Most of those doses are already spoken for by individual, largely affluent or middle-income countries, the story states, leaving little for low- and middle-income nations, “most of which seem to be relying on contributions from” a joint venture called COVAX. The purchasing and distribution group was formed to ensure equitable can you buy cipro without a prescription global access to treatments against antibiotics. Virologist and treatment researcher Shane Crotty at the La Jolla Institute for Immunology tweeted a thread on 11/27/20 discussing the safety of RNA treatments (like those being tested by Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech on large numbers of people and expected to receive emergency-use approval soon by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) cipro low cost.

Crotty writes that RNA is analogous in some ways to expiring messages on social media platforms, and that RNA treatments are “temporary messages instructing cells to make one viral protein temporarily.” He adds, “It takes 25 different antibiotics proteins [complex molecules] to make a antibiotics, so there is no worry about the RNA making a cipro.” Below is an estimated timeline for antibiotics treatment distribution in the U.S., based on a thread tweeted can you buy cipro without a prescription by Dr. Ashish Jha, dean of the Brown University School of Public Health, on 11/22/20. Jha drew the details in part from a can you buy cipro without a prescription televised interview between CNN’s Jake Tapper and Dr. Moncef Slaoui, chief scientific advisor to Operation Warp Speed (the U.S.’s federally funded treatment development effort).

Https://threadreaderapp.com/thread/1330519144178085899.html First public immunizations (health care workers and long-term care facility residents, if U.S. Centers for can you buy cipro without a prescription Disease Control’s 12/2/20 recommendations are followed) would start Dec. 11 or 12;perhaps 20 million people in U.S. Vaccinated by end of can you buy cipro without a prescription December.

About 30 million more people in U.S. Vaccinated by end of January 2021, and combined with total people who have recovered from s, “that’ll slow spread,” Jha writes;about 40 percent immunity in the U.S. Population by can you buy cipro without a prescription February, bringing “meaningfully slower” spread of antibiotics. treatments widely available in U.S.

By April/May 2021 Moderna says it will soon start testing its messenger-RNA can you buy cipro without a prescription treatment against antibiotics in 3,000 teenagers, reports Denise Grady at The New York Times (12/2/20). AstraZeneca and Pfizer/BioNTech already made similar announcements for testing their treatments in children, the story states. All three treatment groups each recently announced that their treatments are effective in large-scale experiments with adults, but “no treatment can be widely given to children until it has been tested in them,” Grady writes. €œtreatments meant for both adults and children are generally tested first in adults to help make sure they are safe can you buy cipro without a prescription for pediatric trials [experiments].” treatments that work well in adults tend to also work well in children, with some dosing adjustments, according to Dr.

Paul Offit, a treatment researcher at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Grady writes. Https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/02/health/buy antibiotics-Moderna-treatment-children.html. Two recent studies suggest that wearing even an N95 mask during vigorous exercise did not result in workouts that felt harder or actually were more physiologically draining, writes Gretchen Reynolds at The New York Times (11/18/20). One of the studies found more carbon dioxide in the breath of N95-masked exercisers, but none of the subjects complained of headaches or breathing issues, the story states.

The results came as a surprise to the study subjects, Reynolds writes. The studies were conducted on healthy, active adults, so it is not clear if the findings would be the same in people who are less healthy or less active or who have breathing problems, the story states. €œThe findings suggest that anyone who hesitates to wear a mask during exercise should try one — although not an N95 mask,” the story describes one of the study authors, an internal medicine physician at Rambam Health Care Campus, as saying. Those masks slightly increase exercisers’ carbon dioxide levels and should be reserved for health care workers anyway, states the story, which also was published in Spanish.

As anticipated, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) released recommendations (on 12/2/20) that include shortening the quarantine period from 14 days to as few as 7 days, at least for people who think they’ve could’ve been exposed to antibiotics but then test negative, reports Colin Dwyer at NPR. €œPeople should still watch closely for symptoms — such as a fever, a cough or a loss of taste or smell — for a full 14 days after possible exposure,” according to the CDC’s incident manager for its buy antibiotics response, Dwyer writes. The change is meant to increase the odds that people will comply with the agency’s quarantine recommendations, the story states.

It also “allows health officials to focus their efforts on the period of time that people are most likely to become contagious,” the story quotes epidemiologist Jennifer Nuzzo of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security as saying (12/2/20). And if you’re confused about the meaning of quarantine versus isolation, or about the distinction between asymptomatic and presymptomatic, and the like, check out this helpful piece, “Clarifying buy antibiotics terminology,” by Lindsay Smith Rogers for Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (11/23/20). An 11/16/20 Q&A at Scientific American with Andrew Huberman, a Stanford University neuroscientist who studies the visual system, details how our vision and our breathing can “offer us easy and accessible releases from stress,” particularly in the context of the cipro challenges and overall intensity of 2020. For instance, emerging research suggests that altering our breathing can alter brain regions responsible for arousal and panic, writes freelance science journalist Jessica Wapner in the introduction to the Q&A.

And when we see stressful or exciting news, it increases our heart rate and breathing, Huberman says. You don’t want to miss this section. Our eyes are “not connected to the brain. They are the brain,” Huberman says.

€œDuring development, the eyes are part of the embryonic forebrain. Your eyes get extruded from the skull during the first trimester, and then they reconnect to the rest of the brain.” One of the tips Huberman mentions. One can turn off their brain's stress response by changing the way we are viewing our environment, specifically by taking on a panoramic view that allows you to see “far into the periphery.” Also, “every time you exhale, you’re slowing down the heart rate,” he says. Check out Betsy Ladyzhets's weekly “buy antibiotics Data Dispatch, a newsletter written to help people make sense of myriad unstandardized (and often untrustworthy) cipro data sources.

The publication provides news on public health agencies, resources for understanding and communicating about the cipro, context on how buy antibiotics data experts are thinking about major issues, and occasional interviews or original analysis. Ladyzhets is a data journalist and science writer who’s been managing her publication’s cipro coverage and volunteering at the buy antibiotics Tracking Project since the spring. All data sources featured in the newsletter since its July inception are compiled in a public Google spreadsheet, and Ladyzhets is working on other supplemental resources that may be useful for journalists, community leaders, and data nerds alike. You might enjoy, “Ten reasons why my New York bodega is better than your 7-Eleven,” by Caroline Ulwick for McSweeney’s.

.Governments around the world are gearing up to use an old regulatory tool for a new purpose. Protecting the economy from climate change. Financial regulators for years have used “stress tests” to gauge whether major banks are prepared to stay afloat amid extreme, unanticipated—yet entirely plausible—economic shocks. They were widely implemented in the United States and abroad following the 2007-08 global financial crisis to help prevent systemwide catastrophes down the line.

Economists, environmentalists and advisers to President-elect Joe Biden warn that global warming could spur that next catastrophe. The climate finance proponents among them argue that major lenders should be required to undergo climate-related stress testing before it’s too late. Standing in the way are a slew of challenges—including insufficient corporate climate disclosures, still-developing climate projections and the banking sector itself, which has already signaled opposition to the idea. There’s a chance that banks could use their lobbying might to delay or water down future climate finance regulations, advocates say.

But global momentum around the issue—and the incoming Biden administration—could mean that mandated climate stress testing in the United States isn’t far off. €œIt’s pretty tough to imagine that regulators wouldn’t do this, because I don’t see how they can act in an informed way if they don’t know what the problem is. And the only way you know the problem is by looking under the hood of [banks’] balance sheets,” said Justin Guay, director of global climate strategy at the Sunrise Project. €œThere is a very clear consensus agreement among regulators globally that climate change is a systemic risk,” Guay added.

€œSo that ship has sailed.” According to Monsur Hussain, who heads financial institution research at Fitch Ratings Inc., the main point of stress testing is to help regulators assess how a financial system or firm would cope under immense pressure—climate-related or otherwise. They do so by modeling the impacts that an economic shock would have on a bank’s profitability and balance sheet over a two- or three-year period. The United States currently requires financial firms to conduct stress tests with a “pass-or-fail threshold,” Hussain said. If a bank does not have enough capital on hand to stay in business during the simulated crisis, it fails.

The Federal Reserve then requires firms that fail the tests to set aside extra capital to prevent the hypothetical situation from taking place in real life. Climate finance proponents say regulators in the United States need to take a similar approach to climate change. They would do so by way of climate scenarios that consider how physical risks—like extreme weather events—and the transition to a low-carbon economy could affect banks’ loans to vulnerable businesses and sectors. Between 2016 and 2019, for instance, companies in the fossil fuel industry received more than $2.7 trillion in financing from 35 major banks, according to a report compiled by a group of environmental organizations.

€œIf we have two hurricanes, a wildfire and droughts in the farming country, will our banking system be able to withstand that?. We don’t really know,” said Sarah Dougherty, a former researcher at the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta who is now with the Natural Resources Defense Council. €˜A fundamental shift’ In June, a coalition of central banks—dubbed the Network for Greening the Financial System—published stress testing guidance for regulators around the world. The document included several high-level climate stress testing scenarios.

Among them was an “orderly transition” scenario, which would help regulators gauge how much money banks would lose if governments set a price on carbon this year—and achieved net-zero emissions by 2050. But the NGFS also included a “hot house world” scenario, in which no additional emissions policies are adopted and the world blows past the warming goals enshrined in the Paris Agreement—leading to severe climate impacts. Central banks in countries including the United Kingdom, France and Japan have already unveiled their plans to roll out stress tests to gauge financial firms’ exposure to global warming. The U.S.

Central bank is much further behind its global peers on the issue and hasn’t yet indicated that it intends to do the same. But there are signs of progress. The Federal Reserve in November acknowledged for the first time in its Financial Stability Report that global warming “is likely to increase financial shocks and financial system vulnerabilities” (Greenwire, Nov. 10).

Also notable is the incoming Biden administration’s commitment to taking an all-of-government approach to climate change, including by tapping a number of climate hawks to fill high-level economic positions (Climatewire, Nov. 25). €œFor the first time, potentially ever, finance policy is being used as climate policy, which is a fundamental shift—it never has been in the past,” Guay said. The incoming administration and the Fed’s change in tone do not eliminate the challenges inherent to measuring how much climate change could cost banks in the long term.

Dougherty, Hussain and the Bank Policy Institute, a lobbying group, are among those who have emphasized that climate stress tests remain in their infancy—in part due to the reality that measuring banks’ exposure to global warming is far more complicated than assessing other hypothetical shocks. That’s for a few reasons. Climate stress tests would need to measure banks’ risk over a longer period. That’s because some climate impacts—such as sea-level rise and the transition to a low-carbon economy—will take place over several decades rather than several years.

Beyond that, developing climate-related scenarios would require banks to make a variety of difficult assumptions—including predicting how climate change would affect each portfolio company, how different sectors will adapt to rising temperatures, and what climate policies will be passed in the United States and elsewhere. €˜Bridge too far’ There’s widespread agreement that those factors make climate stress testing complex. But there’s less consensus regarding what should be done with stress tests’ results—and whether they should be required at all. Greg Baer, the chief executive of BPI—whose members include Bank of America Corp., Citibank and Goldman Sachs Group Inc.—said in a recent op-ed that “banks have an important role to play in managing a transition away from carbon.” But in an interview with E&E News, Baer said BPI’s stance is that climate stress tests are a “bridge too far.” “Trying to capture climate change effects decades in advance—without considering the extraordinary adaptability of the financial system and economy—and incorporating those results into the regulatory capital framework is no easier than predicting how cipros or machine learning will affect banks by 2050,” BPI argued in a recent research note.

For those reasons and more, the trade association concluded that it’s premature to incorporate climate change scenarios into existing macroeconomic stress tests—“and even more so to link climate stress test[s] to capital requirements.” JPMorgan Chase &. Co., Bank of America and the Financial Services Forum—another banking trade group—did not respond to questions about their organizations’ stance on climate stress testing. A Wells Fargo &. Co.

Spokesperson declined to comment. A spokesperson for the American Bankers Association, another trade group, said in an email that quantifying climate impacts on financial firms “is in its early stages” and that “any potential changes to the regulatory framework, no matter how well-intended, must be thoroughly understood to avoid any unintended consequences.” Climate finance experts and advocates disagree with BPI’s position—or at least parts of it. A global meltdown?. Financial regulatory expert Gregg Gelzinis, of the left-leaning Center for American Progress, acknowledged that measuring climate risk is riddled with challenges and that climate stress tests shouldn’t necessarily be used to adjust banks’ capital requirements right off the bat.

€œYes, we are projecting out significantly into the future, and yes, a bank’s balance sheet as it stands in 2020 is going to be different than a bank’s balance sheet as it stands in 2030, or 2040, or 2050,” Gelzinis said. But he disagreed that those challenges are insurmountable—or that they would render the tests’ results useless. €œIf climate stress tests show that 15 years from now, you’re expected to have ... Severe losses on your carbon-sensitive assets—things like fossil fuel bonds and fossil fuel loans—and it encourages you to today shift away from those assets, that’s a positive outcome,” Gelzinis added.

He also warned against regulators implementing stress tests that lack any consequences at all, amounting to what he called “completely toothless exercises.” In his view, banks think about climate stress tests as “maybe an interesting informational exercise. But they don’t want it in any way to impact how much capital they have to fund themselves with, which is one of the most powerful financial regulatory tools in regulators’ arsenal to bolster the resiliency of these banks.” Even if not immediately, he said, climate stress tests should lay the groundwork for more aggressive regulatory measures that would actively safeguard the financial system to avoid an economic meltdown in the future. Dougherty, the former Fed researcher, agreed. €œOf course they don’t want to do something that might make them do more work and hold more capital in reserve,” she said.

€œBut we also don’t want them to fail and take the entire financial system down with them.” Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. E&E provides daily coverage of essential energy and environmental news at www.eenews.net..