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Community care? buy propecia online. Our Editor’s Choice this month explores a novel approach to care delivery, the Physician Response Unit (PRU), which aims to reduce ED attendances by finding a community solution to the emergency complaint. Joy and colleagues’ retrospective analysis of 12 months of data from this service, which is based in London, demonstrated buy propecia online that of nearly 2000 patients attended to, 67% remained in the community.

The authors conclude that this model of care is a successful demonstration of integration and collaboration that also reduced ambulance conveyances and ED attendances. These results are promising, however, as the excellent commentary by Professor Sue Mason identifies, some unanswered questions remain. Whether these results can be generalised across the wider NHS, beyond the unique confines buy propecia online of the capital, and in light of starkly heterogenous healthcare systems and workforces remains unknown.Moving closer to the front doorPhysician in Triage (PIT) remains a controversial topic in EM.

In an interesting analysis of PIT from Israel, Schwarzfuchs and colleagues present an uncontrolled before-after analysis of the impacts of this triage strategy on a single time-critical condition, STEMI. At the EMJ, we usually discourage this buy propecia online type of study. However, here, the authors demonstrate how, with the inclusion of an appropriate logistic regression to consider confounders, this methodology may be an appropriate way to evaluate such interventions which may be difficult to do within a randomised controlled trial.

€œMinutes mean myocardium” and as such the reduction in door-to-balloon time of 9 min when a senior physician was present, demonstrated here, may lend further support to the implementation of PIT. This is certainly a rich area for quality improvement work evaluating such targeted interventions for our patients.All about the Bayes’We welcome an observational analysis from Hautz and colleagues that seeks to explain the patient, physician and contextual factors associated with diagnostic buy propecia online test ordering. Baye’s theorem describes the probability of an event based on the prior knowledge conditions that may relate to that event.

A key concept we should all adopt in test ordering. However, this manuscript goes further in exploring that buy propecia online prior knowledge by evaluating physician experience, patient and situational context. Rather surprisingly, in this single centre analysis of 473 patients and 38 physicians, these factors seem to have a limited impact on test ordering.

Rather, it seems that, uncertainty around the patient’s condition (high acuity) and case difficulty seem buy propecia online to influence test ordering more. So, uncertain pre-test probability equates to higher degrees of diagnostic test ordering. The Reverend Bayes would be turning in his grave.WellnessNow, unlike ever before, it is important to establish the need for physical and psychological recuperation among our staff.

The first manuscript within our Wellness buy propecia online section, from Graham and colleagues (this months Reader’s Choice) evaluates the Need For Recovery (NFR) Score in 168 emergency workers at a single site. The high NFR in this population provides a quantifiable insight into our high work intensity but further validation is required beyond a single site. Over to you TERN….While knowing the extent of the problem is of great importance, what we do about it is perhaps a greater challenge.

We would therefore encourage our readers to take home some of the top tips included in our expert practice review this month, Top Ten Evidence-Based Countermeasures for Night Shift Workers by Wallace and Haber.There’s a bug going around…We have had a record number of submissions during the hair loss treatment propecia and the extent buy propecia online to which the EM community has pulled together to inform clinical practice at this time has been breath taking. We are sorry we cannot accept all your excellent work. It is a pleasure to publish a number of Reports from the Front on this topic ranging from buy propecia online patient level interventions such as proning, to invaluable lessons from systems wide responses to the propecia.

However, the importance of evidence-based medicine has never been higher and this is discussed in our excellent Concepts paper by some very eminent EM Professors.Introducing SONO case seriesLastly, this month sees the first in a series of SONO cases published in the EMJ. This will be a regular feature and is a case-based approach to demonstrate how ED Ultrasound can influence and improve patient care.As demand for healthcare in the UK rises, the challenges become those of trying to meet this demand in a patient-centred way whilst managing changes in the delivery of healthcare to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of services. This requires an increased level of understanding and cooperation between different healthcare professionals, provider organisations and buy propecia online patients.

The changes mean reconsidering traditional roles and where appropriate, redefining professional roles, areas of responsibility and team structures, and renegotiating the boundaries between acute and community care. Government policy has emphasised the need for the NHS to provide increased patient choice, ease of access and delivery of a high-quality service. This is relevant to providers of buy propecia online emergency care services which need to develop new ways of meeting patient needs closer to home and work environments.

In emergency care, ambulance services have had to consider new types of responses to those usually provided. Policy initiatives have meant local NHS organisations assuming buy propecia online responsibility for managing and monitoring how local services respond to urgent and non-urgent 999 ambulance calls. Alongside this, the NHS Long Term Plan emphasises the importance of integrating care through a more joined-up multidisciplinary approach that spans boundaries between primary and secondary care but aims to keep patients out of hospital.At the same time, we are facing workforce crisis across the NHS.

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IntroductionLa Peste (Camus have a peek at this web-site 1947) has served as a basis for several critical works, including some in the field of buy propecia from canada medical humanities (Bozzaro 2018. Deudon 1988. Tuffuor and Payne buy propecia from canada 2017).

Frequently interpreted as an allegory of Nazism (with the plague as a symbol of the German occupation of France) (Finel-Honigman 1978. Haroutunian 1964), it has also received philosophical readings beyond the sociopolitical context in which it was written (Lengers 1994). Other scholars, on the other hand, have centred their analyses on its literary aspects buy propecia from canada (Steel 2016).The hair loss treatment propecia has increased general interest about historical and fictional epidemics.

La Peste, as one of the most famous literary works about this topic, has been revisited by many readers during recent months, leading to an unexpected growth in sales in certain countries (Wilsher 2020. Zaretsky 2020). Apart from that, commentaries about buy propecia from canada the novel, especially among health sciences scholars, have emerged with a renewed interest (Banerjee et al.

2020. Bate 2020. Vandekerckhove 2020 buy propecia from canada.

Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020). This sudden curiosity is easy to understand if we consider both La Peste’s literary value, and people’s desire to discover real or fictional situations similar to theirs. Indeed, Oran inhabitants’ experiences are not quite far from our own, even if geographical, chronological and, specially, scientific factors (two different diseases occurring at two buy propecia from canada different stages in the history of medical development) prevent us from establishing too close resemblances between both situations.Furthermore, it will not be strange if hair loss treatment serves as a frame for fictional works in the near future.

Other narrative plays were based on historical epidemics, such as Daniel Defoe’s A Journal of the Plague Year or Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020. Withington 2020). The biggest propecia in the last century, buy propecia from canada the so-called ‘Spanish Influenza’, has been described as not very fruitful in this sense, even if it produced famous novels such as Katherine A Porter’s Pale Horse, Pale Rider or John O’Hara’s The Doctor Son (Honigsbaum 2018.

Hovanec 2011). The overlapping with another disaster like World War I has been argued as one of the reasons explaining this scarce production of fictional works (Honigsbaum 2018). By contrast, we may think that hair loss treatment is having a global impact hardly overshadowed by other events, and that it will leave a significant mark on the collective memory.Drawing on the reading of La Peste, we point out in this essay different aspects of living under an buy propecia from canada epidemic that can be identified both in Camus’s work and in our current situation.

We propose a trip throughout the novel, from its early beginning in Part I, when the Oranians are not aware of the threat to come, to its end in Part V, when they are relieved of the epidemic after several months of ravaging disasters.We think this journey along La Peste may be interesting both to health professionals and to the lay person, since all of them will be able to see themselves reflected in the characters from the novel. We do not skip critique of some aspects related to the authorities’ management of hair loss treatment, as Camus does concerning Oran’s rulers. However, what we want to foreground is La Peste’s intrinsic value, its suitability to be read now and after hair loss treatment has passed, buy propecia from canada when Camus’s novel endures as a solid art work and hair loss treatment remains only as a defeated plight.MethodsWe confronted our own experiences about hair loss treatment with a conventional reading of La Peste.

A first reading of the novel was used to establish associations between those aspects which more saliently reminded us of hair loss treatment. In a second reading, we searched for some examples to illustrate those aspects and tried to detect new associations. Subsequent readings buy propecia from canada of certain parts were done to integrate the information collected.

Neither specific methods of literary analysis, nor systematic searches in the novel were applied. Selected paragraphs and ideas from Part I to Part V were prepared in a draft copy, and this manuscript was written afterwards.Part ISome phrases in the novel could be transposed word by word to our situation. This one pertaining to its start, for instance, may make us buy propecia from canada remember the first months of 2020:By now, it will be easy to accept that nothing could lead the people of our town to expect the events that took place in the spring of that year and which, as we later understood, were like the forerunners of the series of grave happenings that this history intends to describe.

(Camus 2002, Part I)By referring from the beginning to ‘the people of our town’, Camus is already suggesting an idea which is repeated all along the novel, and which may be well understood by us as hair loss treatment’s witnesses. Epidemics affect the community as a whole, they are present in everybody’s mind and their joys and sorrows are not individual, but collective. For example (and we are anticipating Part II), the buy propecia from canada narrator says:But, once the gates were closed, they all noticed that they were in the same boat, including the narrator himself, and that they had to adjust to the fact.

(Camus 2002, Part II)Later, he will insist in this opposition between the concepts of ‘individual’, which used to prevail before the epidemic, and ‘collective’:One might say that the first effect of this sudden and brutal attack of the disease was to force the citizens of our town to act as though they had no individual feelings. (Camus 2002, Part II)There were no longer any individual destinies, but a collective history that was the plague, and feelings shared by all. (Camus 2002, Part III)This distinction is not trivial, since the story will display a strong confrontation between those who get involved and help their buy propecia from canada neighbours and those who remain behaving selfishly.

Related to this, Claudia Bozzaro has pointed out that the main topic in La Peste is solidarity and auistic love (Bozzaro 2018). We may add that the disease is so attached to people’s lives that the epidemic becomes the new everyday life:In the morning, they would return to the pestilence, that is to say, to routine. (Camus 2002, Part III)Being collective issues does not mean that epidemics always enhance auism buy propecia from canada and solidarity.

As said by Wigand et al, they frequently produce ambivalent reactions, and one of them is the opposition between auism and maximised profit (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020). Therefore, the dichotomy between individualism and collectivism, a central point in the characterisation of national cultures (Hofstede 2015), could play a role in epidemics. In fact, concerning hair loss treatment, some authors have described a greater impact of the buy propecia from canada propecia in those countries with higher levels of individualism (Maaravi et al.

However, this finding should be complemented with other national cultures’ aspects before concluding that collectivism itself exerts a protective role against epidemics. Concerning this, it has been shown how ‘power distance’ frequently intersects with collectivism, being only a few countries in which the last one coexists with a small distance to power, namely with a capacity to disobey the power authority (Gupta, Shoja, and Mikalef 2021). Moreover, those countries classically classified as ‘collectivist’ (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Vietnam, etc.) are also characterised by high levels of power distance, and their citizens have been quite often forced to adhere to hair loss treatment restrictions and punished if not (Gupta, Shoja, and Mikalef 2021).

Thus, it is important to consider that individualism is not always opposed to ‘look after each other’ (Ozkan et al. 2021, 9). For instance, the European region, seen as a whole as highly ‘individualistic’, holds some of the most advanced welfare protection systems worldwide.

It is worth considering too that collectivism may hide sometimes a hard institutional authority or a lack in civil freedoms.Coming back to La Peste, we may think that Camus’s Oranians are not particularly ‘collectivist’. Their initial description highlights that they are mainly interested in their own businesses and affairs:Our fellow-citizens work a good deal, but always in order to make money. They are especially interested in trade and first of all, as they say, they are engaged in doing business.

(Camus 2002, Part I)And later, we see some of them trying selfishly to leave the city by illegal methods. By contrast, we observe in the novel some examples of more ‘collectivistic’ attitudes, such as the discipline of those quarantined at the football pitch, and, over all, the main characters’ behaviour, which is generally driven by auism and common goals.Turning to another topic, the plague in Oran and hair loss treatment are similar regarding their animal origin. This is not rare since many infectious diseases pass to humans through contact with animal vectors, being rodents, especially rats (through rat fleas), the most common carriers of plague bacteria (CDC.

N.d.a, ECDC. N.d, Pollitzer 1954). Concerning hair loss, even if further research about its origin is needed, the most recent investigations conducted in China by the WHO establish a zoonotic transmission as the most probable pathway (Joint WHO-China Study Team 2021).

In Camus’s novel, the animal’s link to the epidemic seemed very clear since the beginning:Things got to the point where Infodoc (the agency for information and documentation, ‘ all you need to know on any subject’) announced in its free radio news programme that 6,231 rats had been collected and burned in a single day, the 25th. This figure, which gave a clear meaning to the daily spectacle that everyone in town had in front of their eyes, disconcerted them even more. (Camus 2002, Part I)This accuracy in figures is familiar to us.

People nowadays have become very used to the statistical aspects of the propecia, due to the continuous updates in epidemiological parameters launched by the media and the authorities. Camus was aware about the relevance of figures in epidemics, which always entail:…required registration and statistical tasks. (Camus 2002, Part II)Because of this, the novel is scattered with numbers, most of them concerning the daily death toll, but others mentioning the number of rats picked up, as we have seen, or combining the number of deaths with the time passed since the start of the epidemic:“ Will there be an autumn of plague?.

Professor B answers. €˜ No’ ”, “ One hundred and twenty-four dead. The total for the ninety-fourth day of the plague.” (Camus 2002, Part II)We permit ourselves to introduce here a list of recurring topics in La Peste, since the salience of statistical information is one of them.

These topics, some of which will be treated later, appear several times in the novel, in various contexts and stages in the evolution of the epidemic. We synthesise them in Table 1, coupled with a hair loss treatment parallel example extracted from online press. This ease to find a current example for each topic suggests that they are not exclusive of plague or of Camus’s mindset, but shared by most epidemics.View this table:Table 1 Recurring topics in La Peste.

Each topic is accompanied by two examples from the novel and one concerning hair loss treatment, extracted from online press.Talking about journalism and the media (one of the topics above), we might say that hair loss treatment’s coverage is frequently too optimistic when managing good news and too alarming when approaching the bad. Media’s ‘exaggerated’ approach to health issues is not new. It was already a concern for medical journals’ editors a century ago (Reiling 2013) and it continues to be it for these professionals in recent times (Barbour et al.

2008). It is well known that media tries to attract spectators’ attention by making the news more appealing. However, they deal with the risk of expanding unreliable information, which may be pernicious for the public opinion.

Related to the intention of ‘garnishing’ the news, Aslam et al. (2020) have described that 82% of more than 100 000 pieces of information about hair loss treatment appearing in media from different countries carried an emotional, either negative (52%) or positive (30%) component, with only 18% of them considered as ‘neutral’ (Aslam et al. 2020).

Some evidence about this tendency to make news more emotional was described in former epidemics. For instance, a study conducted in Singapore in 2009 during the H1N1 crisis showed how press releases by the Ministry of Health were substantially transformed when passed to the media, by increasing their emotional appeal and by changing their dominant frame or their tone (Lee and Basnyat 2013). In La Peste, this superficial way of managing information by the media is also observed:The newspapers followed the order that they had been given, to be optimistic at any cost.

(Camus 2002, Part IV)At the first stages of the epidemic in Oran, journalists proclaim the end of the dead rats’ invasion as something to be celebrated. Dr Rieux, the character through which Camus symbolises caution (and comparable nowadays to trustful scientists, well-informed journalists or sensible authorities), exposes then his own angle, quite far from suggesting optimism:The vendors of the evening papers were shouting that the invasion of rats had ended. But Rieux found his patient lying half out of bed, one hand on his belly and the other around his neck, convulsively vomiting reddish bile into a rubbish bin.

(Camus 2002, Part I)Camus, who worked as a journalist for many years, insists afterwards on this cursory interest that some media devote to the epidemic, more eager to grab the noise than the relevant issues beneath it:The press, which had had so much to say about the business of the rats, fell silent. This is because rats die in the street and people in their bedrooms. And newspapers are only concerned with the street.

(Camus 2002, Part I)By then, Oranians continue rejecting the epidemic as an actual threat, completely immersed in that phase that dominates the beginning of all epidemics and is characterised by ‘denial and disbelief’ (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020, 443):A pestilence does not have human dimensions, so people tell themselves that it is unreal, that it is a bad dream which will end. […] The people of our town were no more guilty than anyone else, they merely forgot to be modest and thought that everything was still possible for them, which implied that pestilence was impossible. They continued with business, with making arrangements for travel and holding opinions.

Why should they have thought about the plague, which negates the future, negates journeys and debate?. They considered themselves free and no one will ever be free as long as there is plague, pestilence and famine. (Camus 2002, Part I)Probably to avoid citizens' disapproval, among other reasons, the Oranian Prefecture (health authority in Camus' novel) does not want to go too far when judging the relevance of the epidemic.

While not directly exposed, we can guess in this fragment the tone of the Prefect’s message, his intention to convey confidence despite his own doubts:These cases were not specific enough to be really disturbing and there was no doubt that the population would remain calm. None the less, for reasons of caution which everyone could understand, the Prefect was taking some preventive measures. If they were interpreted and applied in the proper way, these measures were such that they would put a definite stop to any threat of epidemic.

As a result, the Prefect did not for a moment doubt that the citizens under his charge would co-operate in the most zealous manner with what he was doing. (Camus 2002, Part I)The relevant role acquired by health authorities during epidemics is another topic listed in our table. Language use, on the other hand, is an issue linkable both with the media topic and with this one.

As in La Peste, during hair loss treatment we have seen some public figures using words not always truthfully, carrying out a careful selection of words that serves to the goal of conveying certain interests in each moment. Dr Rieux refers in Part I to this language manipulation by the authorities:The measures that had been taken were insufficient, that was quite clear. As for the ‘ specially equipped wards’, he knew what they were.

Two outbuildings hastily cleared of other patients, their windows sealed up and the whole surrounded by a cordon sanitaire. (Camus 2002, Part I)He illustrates the need of frankness, the preference for clarity in language, which is often the clarity in thinking:No. I phoned Richard to say we needed comprehensive measures, not fine words, and that either we must set up a real barrier to the epidemic, or nothing at all.

(Camus 2002, Part I)At the end of this part, his fears about the inadequacy of not taking strict measures are confirmed. Oranian hospitals become overwhelmed, as they are now in many places worldwide due to hair loss treatment.Part IILeft behind the phases of ‘denial and disbelief’ and of ‘fear and panic’, it appears among the Oranians the ‘acceptance paired with resignation’ (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020, 443):Then we knew that our separation was going to last, and that we ought to try to come to terms with time. […] In particular, all of the people in our town very soon gave up, even in public, whatever habit they may have acquired of estimating the length of their separation.

(Camus 2002, Part II)In hair loss treatment as well, even if border closure has not been so immovable as in Oran, many people have seen themselves separated from their loved ones and some of them have not yet had the possibility of reunion. This is why, in the actual propecia, the idea of temporal horizons has emerged like it appeared in Camus’s epidemic. In Spain, the general lockdown in March and April 2020 made people establish the summer as their temporal horizon, a time in which they could resume their former habits and see their relatives again.

This became partially true, and people were allowed in summer to travel inside the country and to some other countries nearby. However, there existed some reluctance to visit ill or aged relatives, due to the fear of infecting them, and some families living in distant countries were not able to get together. Moreover, autumn brought an increase in the number of cases (‘the second wave’) and countries returned to limit their internal and external movements.Bringing all this together, many people nowadays have opted to discard temporal horizons.

As Oranians, they have noted that the epidemic follows its own rhythm and it is useless to fight against it. Nonetheless, it is in human nature not to resign, so abandoning temporal horizons does not mean to give up longing for the recovery of normal life. This vision, neither maintaining vain hopes nor resigning, is in line with Camus’s philosophy, an author who wrote that ‘hope, contrary to what it is usually thought, is the same to resignation.’ (Camus 1939, 83.

Cited by Haroutunian 1964, 312 (translation is ours)), and that ‘there is not love to human life but with despair about human life.’ (Camus 1958, 112–5. Cited by Haroutunian 1964, 312–3 (translation is ours)).People nowadays deal with resignation relying on daily life pleasures (being not allowed to make further plans or trips) and in company from the nearest ones (as they cannot gather with relatives living far away). Second, they observe the beginning of vaccination campaigns as a first step of the final stage, and summer 2021, reflecting what happened with summer 2020, has been fixed as a temporal horizon.

This preference for summers has an unavoidable metaphorical nuance, and their linking to joy, long trips and life in the streets may be the reason for which we choose them to be opposed to the lockdown and restrictions of the propecia.We alluded previously to the manipulation of language, and figures, as relevant as they are, they are not free from manipulation either. Tarrou, a close friend to Dr Rieux, points out in this part of the novel how this occurred:Once more, Tarrou was the person who gave the most accurate picture of our life as it was then. Naturally he was following the course of the plague in general, accurately observing that a turning point in the epidemic was marked by the radio no longer announcing some hundreds of deaths per week, but 92, 107 and 120 deaths a day.

€˜The newspapers and the authorities are engaged in a battle of wits with the plague. They think that they are scoring points against it, because 130 is a lower figure than 910.’ (Camus 2002, Part II)Tarrou collaborates with the health teams formed to tackle the plague. Regarding these volunteers and workers, Camus refuses to consider them as heroes, as many essential workers during hair loss treatment have rejected to be named as that.

The writer thinks their actions are the natural behaviour of good people, not heroism but ‘a logical consequence’:The whole question was to prevent the largest possible number of people from dying and suffering a definitive separation. There was only one way to do this, which was to fight the plague. There was nothing admirable about this truth, it simply followed as a logical consequence.

(Camus 2002, Part II)We consider suitable to talk here about two issues which represent, nowadays, a great part of hair loss treatment fears and hopes, respectively. New genetic variants and treatments. Medical achievements are another recurrent issue included in table 1, and we write about them here because it is in Part II where Camus writes for the first time about treatments, and where it insists on an idea aforementioned in Part I.

That the plague bacillus affecting Oran is different from previous variants:…the microbe differed very slightly from the bacillus of plague as traditionally defined. (Camus 2002, Part II)Related to hair loss treatment new variants, they represent a challenge because of two main reasons. Their higher transmissibility and/or severity and their higher propensity to skip the effect of natural or treatment-induced immunity.

Public health professionals are determining which is the actual threat of all the new variants discovered, such as those first characterised in the UK (Public Health England 2020), South Africa (Tegally et al. 2021) or Brazil (Fujino et al. 2021).

In La Peste, Dr Rieux is always suspecting that the current bacteria they are dealing with is different from the one in previous epidemics of plague. Since several genetic variations for the bacillus Yersinia pestis have been characterised (Cui et al. 2012), it could be possible that the epidemic in Oran originated from a new one.

However, we should not forget that we are analysing a literary work, and that scientific accuracy is not a necessary goal in it. In fact, Rieux’s reluctances have to do more with clinical aspects than with microbiological ones. He doubts since the beginning, relying exclusively on the symptoms observed, and continues doing it after the laboratory analysis:I was able to have an analysis made in which the laboratory thinks it can detect the plague bacillus.

However, to be precise, we must say that certain specific modifications of the microbe do not coincide with the classic description of plague. (Camus 2002, Part II)Camus is consistent with this idea and many times he mentions the bacillus to highlight its oddity. Insisting on the literary condition of the work, and among other possible explanations, he is maybe declaring that that in the novel is not a common (biological, natural) bacteria, but the Nazism bacteria.Turning to treatments, they constitute the principal resource that the global community has to defeat the hair loss treatment propecia.

Vaccination campaigns have started all over the world, and three types of hair loss treatments are being applied in the European Union, after their respective statements of efficacy and security (Baden et al. 2021. Polack et al.

2020. Voysey et al. 2021), while a fourth treatment has just recently been approved (EMA 2021a).

Although some concerns regarding the safety of two of these treatments have been raised recently (EMA 2021b. EMA 2021c), vaccination plans are going ahead, being adapted according to the state of knowledge at each moment. Some of these treatments are mRNA-based (Baden et al.

2021. Polack et al. 2020), while others use a viral vector (Bos et al.

They are mainly two-shot treatments, with one exception (Bos et al. 2020), and complete immunity is thought to be acquired 2 weeks after the last shot (CDC. N.d.b, Voysey et al.

2021). Other countries such as China or Russia, on the other hand, were extremely early in starting their vaccination campaigns, and are distributing among their citizens different treatments than the aforementioned (Logunov et al. 2021.

Zhang et al. 2021).Even if at least three types of plague treatments had been created by the time the novel takes place (Sun 2016), treatments do not play an important role in La Peste, in which therapeutic measures (the serum) are more important than prophylactic ones. Few times in the novel the narrator refers to prophylactic inoculations:There was still no possibility of vaccinating with preventive serum except in families already affected by the disease.

(Camus 2002, Part II)Deudon has pointed out that Camus mixes up therapeutic serum and treatment (Deudon 1988), and in fact there exists a certain amount of confusion. All along the novel, the narrator focuses on the prophylactic goals of the serum, which is applied to people already infected (Othon’s son, Tarrou, Grand…). However, both in the example above (which can be understood as vaccinating household contacts or already affected individuals) and in others, the differences between treating and vaccinating are not clear:After the morning admissions which he was in charge of himself, the patients were vaccinated and the swellings lanced.

(Camus 2002, Part II)In any case, this is another situation in which Camus stands aside from scientific matters, which are to him less relevant in his novel than philosophical or literary ones. The distance existing between the relevance of treatments in hair loss treatment and the superficial manner with which Camus treats the topic in La Peste exemplifies this.Part IIIIn part III, the plague’s ravages become tougher. The narrator turns his focus to burials and their disturbance, a frequent topic in epidemics’ narrative (table 1).

Camus knew how acutely increasing demands and hygienic requirements affect funeral habits during epidemics:Everything really happened with the greatest speed and the minimum of risk. (Camus 2002, Part III)Like many other processes during epidemics, the burial process becomes a protocol. When protocolised, everything seems to work well and rapidly.

But this perfect mechanism is the Prefecture’s goal, not Rieux’s. He reveals in this moment an aspect in his character barely shown before. Irony.The whole thing was well organized and the Prefect expressed his satisfaction.

He even told Rieux that, when all was said and done, this was preferable to hearses driven by black slaves which one read about in the chronicles of earlier plagues. €˜ Yes,’ Rieux said. €˜ The burial is the same, but we keep a card index.

No one can deny that we have made progress.’ (Camus 2002, Part III)Even if this characteristic may seem new in Dr Rieux, we must bear in mind that he is the story narrator, and the narration is ironic from time to time. For instance, speaking precisely about the burials:The relatives were invited to sign a register –which just showed the difference that there may be between men and, for example, dogs. You can keep check of human beings-.

(Camus 2002, Part III)In Camus’s philosophy, the absurd is a core issue. According to Lengers, Rieux is ironic because he is a kind of Sisyphus who has understood the absurdity of plague (Lengers 1994). The response to the absurd is to rebel (Camus 2013), and Rieux does it by helping his fellow humans without questioning anything.

He does not pursue any other goal than doing his duty, thus humour (as a response to dire situations) stands out from him when he observes others celebrating irrelevant achievements, such as the Prefect with his burial protocol. In the field of medical ethics, Lengers has highlighted the importance of Camus’s perspective when considering ‘the immediacy of life rather than abstract values’ (Lengers 1994, 250). Rieux himself is quite sure that his solid commitment is not ‘abstract’, and, even if he falls into abstraction, the importance relies on protecting human lives and not in the name given to that task:Was it truly an abstraction, spending his days in the hospital where the plague was working overtime, bringing the number of victims up to five hundred on average per week?.

Yes, there was an element of abstraction and unreality in misfortune. But when an abstraction starts to kill you, you have to get to work on it. (Camus 2002, Part II)Farewells during hair loss treatment may have not been particularly pleasant for some families.

Neither those dying at nursing homes nor in hospitals could be accompanied by their families as previously, due to corpses management protocols, restrictions of external visitors and hygienic measures in general. However, as weeks passed by, certain efforts were made to ease this issue, allowing people to visit their dying beloved sticking to strict preventive measures. On the other hand, the number of people attending funeral masses and cemeteries was also limited, which affected the conventional development of ceremonies as well.

Hospitals had to deal with daily tolls of deaths never seen before, and the overcrowding of mortuaries made us see rows of coffins placed in unusual spaces, such as ice rinks (transformation of facilities is another topic in table 1).We turn now to two other points which hair loss treatment has not evaded. s among essential workers and epidemics’ economic consequences. The author links burials with s among essential workers because gravediggers constitute one of the most affected professions, and connects this fact with the economic recession because unemployment is behind the large availability of workers to replace the dead gravediggers:Many of the male nurses and the gravediggers, who were at first official, then casual, died of the plague.

[…] The most surprising thing was that there was never a shortage of men to do the job, for as long as the epidemic lasted. […] When the plague really took hold of the town, its very immoderation had one quite convenient outcome, because it disrupted the whole of economic life and so created quite a large number of unemployed. […] Poverty always triumphed over fear, to the extent that work was always paid according to the risk involved.

(Camus 2002, Part III)The effects of the plague over the economic system are one of our recurrent topics (table 1). The plague in Oran, as it forces to close the city, impacts all trading exchanges. In addition, it forbids travellers from arriving to the city, with the economic influence that that entails:This plague was the ruination of tourism.

(Camus 2002, Part II)Oranians, who, as we saw, were very worried about making money, are especially affected by an event which jeopardises it. In hair loss treatment, for one reason or for another, most of the countries are suffering economic consequences, since the impact on normal life from the epidemic (another recurrent topic) means also an impact on the normal development of trading activities.Part IVIn Part IV we witness the first signals of a stabilisation of the epidemic:It seemed that the plague had settled comfortably into its peak and was carrying out its daily murders with the precision and regularity of a good civil servant. In theory, in the opinion of experts, this was a good sign.

The graph of the progress of the plague, starting with its constant rise, followed by this long plateau, seemed quite reassuring. (Camus 2002, Part IV)At this time, we consider interesting to expand the topic about the transformation of facilities. We mentioned the case of ice rinks during hair loss treatment, and we bring up now the use of a football pitch as a quarantine camp in Camus’s novel, a scene which has reminded some scholars of the metaphor of Nazism and concentration camps (Finel-Honigman 1978).

In Spain, among other measures, a fairground was enabled as a field hospital during the first wave, and it is plausible that many devices created with other purposes were used in tasks attached to healthcare provision during those weeks, as occurred in Oran’s pitch with the loudspeakers:Then the loudspeakers, which in better times had served to introduce the teams or to declare the results of games, announced in a tinny voice that the internees should go back to their tents so that the evening meal could be distributed. (Camus 2002, Part IV)Related to this episode, we can also highlight the opposition between science and humanism that Camus does. The author alerts us about the dangers of a dehumanised science, of choosing procedures perfectly efficient regardless of their lack in human dignity:The men held out their hands, two ladles were plunged into two of the pots and emerged to unload their contents onto two tin plates.

The car drove on and the process was repeated at the next tent.‘ It’s scientific,’ Tarrou told the administrator.‘ Yes,’ he replied with satisfaction, as they shook hands. €˜ It’s scientific.’ (Camus 2002, Part IV)Several cases with favourable outcomes mark Part IV final moments and prepare the reader for the end of the epidemic. To describe these signs of recovering, the narrator turns back to two elements with a main role in the novel.

Rats and figures. In this moment, the first ones reappear and the second ones seem to be declining:He had seen two live rats come into his house through the street door. Neighbours had informed him that the creatures were also reappearing in their houses.

Behind the walls of other houses there was a hustle and bustle that had not been heard for months. Rieux waited for the general statistics to be published, as they were at the start of each week. They showed a decline in the disease.

(Camus 2002, Part IV)Part VGiven that we continue facing hair loss treatment, and that forecasts about its end are not easy, we cannot compare ourselves with the Oranians once they have reached the end of the epidemic, what occurs in this part. However, we can analyse our current situation, characterised by a widespread, though cautious, confidence motivated by the beginning of vaccination campaigns, referring it to the events narrated in Part V.Even more than the Oranians, since we feel further than them from the end of the problem, we are cautious about not to anticipate celebrations. From time to time, however, we lend ourselves to dream relying on what the narrator calls ‘a great, unadmitted hope’.

hair loss treatment took us by surprise and everyone wants to ‘reorganise’ their life, as Oranians do, but patience is an indispensable component to succeed, as fictional and historical epidemics show us.Although this sudden decline in the disease was unexpected, the towns-people were in no hurry to celebrate. The preceding months, though they had increased the desire for liberation, had also taught them prudence and accustomed them to count less and less on a rapid end to the epidemic. However, this new development was the subject of every conversation and, in the depths of people’s hearts, there was a great, unadmitted hope.

[…] One of the signs that a return to a time of good health was secretly expected (though no one admitted the fact) was that from this moment on people readily spoke, with apparent indifference, about how life would be reorganized after the plague. (Camus 2002, Part V)We put our hope on vaccination. Social distancing and other hygienic measures have proved to be effective, but treatments would bring us a more durable solution without compromising so hardly many economic activities and social habits.

As we said, a more important role of scientific aspects is observed in hair loss treatment if compared with La Peste (an expected fact if considered that Camus’s story is an artistic work, that he skips sometimes the most complex scientific issues of the plague and that health sciences have evolved substantially during last decades). Oranians, in fact, achieve the end of the epidemic not through clearly identified scientific responses but with certain randomness:All one could do was to observe that the sickness seemed to be going as it had arrived. The strategy being used against it had not changed.

It had been ineffective yesterday, and now it was apparently successful. One merely had the feeling that the disease had exhausted itself, or perhaps that it was retiring after achieving all its objectives. In a sense, its role was completed.

(Camus 2002, Part V)They receive the announcement made by the Prefecture of reopening the town’s gates in 2 weeks time with enthusiasm. Dealing with concrete dates gives them certainty, helps them fix the temporal horizons we wrote about. This is also the case when they are told that preventive measures would be lifted in 1 month.

Camus shows us then how the main characters are touched as well by this positive atmosphere:That evening Tarrou and Rieux, Rambert and the rest, walked in the midst of the crowd, and they too felt they were treading on air. Long after leaving the boulevards Tarrou and Rieux could still hear the sounds of happiness following them… (Camus 2002, Part V)Then, Tarrou points out a sign of recovery coming from the animal world. In a direct zoological chain, infected fleas have vanished from rats, which have been able again to multiply across the city, making the cats abandon their hiding places and to go hunting after them again.

At the final step of this chain, Tarrou sees the human being. He remembers the old man who used to spit to the cats beneath his window:At a time when the noise grew louder and more joyful, Tarrou stopped. A shape was running lightly across the dark street.

It was a cat, the first that had been seen since the spring. It stopped for a moment in the middle of the road, hesitated, licked its paw, quickly passed it across its right ear, then carried on its silent way and vanished into the night. Tarrou smiled.

The little old man, too, would be happy. (Camus 2002, Part V)Unpleasant things as a town with rats running across its streets, or a man spending his time spitting on a group of cats, constitute normality as much as the reopening of gates or the reboot of commerce. However, when Camus speaks directly about normality, he highlights more appealing habits.

He proposes common leisure activities (restaurants, theatres) as symbols of human life, since he opposes them to Cottard’s life, which has become that of a ‘wild animal’:At least in appearance he [ Cottard ] retired from the world and from one day to the next started to live like a wild animal. He no longer appeared in restaurants, at the theatre or in his favourite cafés. (Camus 2002, Part V)We do not disclose why Cottard’s reaction to the end of the epidemic is different from most of the Oranians’.

In any case, the narrator insists later on the assimilation between common pleasures and normality:‘ Perhaps,’ Cottard said, ‘ Perhaps so. But what do you call a return to normal life?. €™ ‘ New films in the cinema,’ said Tarrou with a smile.

(Camus 2002, Part V)Cinema, as well as theatre, live music and many other cultural events have been cancelled or obliged to modify their activities due to hair loss treatment. Several bars and restaurants have closed, and spending time in those who remain open has become an activity which many people tend to avoid, fearing contagion. Thus, normality in our understanding is linked as well to these simple and pleasant habits, and the complete achievement of them will probably signify for us the desired defeat of the propecia.In La Peste, love is also seen as a simple good to be fully recovered after the plague.

While Rieux goes through the ‘reborn’ Oran, it is lovers’ gatherings what he highlights. Unlike them, everyone who, during the epidemic, sought for goals different from love (such as faith or money, for instance) remain lost when the epidemic has ended:For all the people who, on the contrary, had looked beyond man to something that they could not even imagine, there had been no reply. (Camus 2002, Part V)And this is because lovers, as the narrator says:If they had found that they wanted, it was because they had asked for the only thing that depended on them.

(Camus 2002, Part V)We have spoken before about language manipulation, hypocrisy and public figures’ roles during epidemics. Camus, during Dr Rieux’s last visit to the old asthmatic man, makes this frank and humble character criticise, with a point of irony, the authorities’ attitude concerning tributes to the dead:‘ Tell me, doctor, is it true that they’re going to put up a monument to the victims of the plague?. €™â€˜ So the papers say.

A pillar or a plaque.’‘ I knew it!. And there’ll be speeches.’The old man gave a strangled laugh.‘ I can hear them already. €œ Our dead…” Then they’ll go and have dinner.’ (Camus 2002, Part V)The old man illustrates wisely the authorities’ propensity for making speeches.

He knows that most of them usually prefer grandiloquence rather than common words, and seizes perfectly their tone when he imitates them (‘Our dead…’). We have also got used, during hair loss treatment, to these types of messages. We have also heard about ‘our old people’, ‘our youth’, ‘our essential workers’ and even ‘our dead’.

Behind this tone, however, there could be an intention to hide errors, or to falsely convey carefulness. Honest rulers do not usually need nice words. They just want them to be accurate.We have seen as well some tributes to the victims during hair loss treatment, some of which we can doubt whether they serve to victims’ relief or to authorities’ promotion.

We want rulers to be less aware of their own image and to stress truthfulness as a goal, even if this is a hard requirement not only for them, but for every single person. Language is essential in this issue, we think, since it is prone to be twisted and to become untrue. The old asthmatic man illustrates it with his ‘There’ll be speeches’ and his ‘Our dead…’, but this is not the only time in the novel in which Camus brings out the topic.

For instance, he does so when he equates silence (nothing can be thought as further from wordiness) with truth:It is at the moment of misfortune that one becomes accustomed to truth, that is to say to silence. (Camus 2002, Part II)or when he makes a solid statement against false words:…I understood that all the misfortunes of mankind came from not stating things in clear terms. (Camus 2002, Part IV)The old asthmatic, in fact, while praising the deceased Tarrou, remarks that he used to admire him because ‘he didn’t talk just for the sake of it.’ (Camus 2002, Part V).Related to this topic, what the old asthmatic says about political authorities may be transposed in our case to other public figures, such as scholars and researchers, media leaders, businessmen and women, health professionals… and, if we extend the scope, to every single citizen.

Because hypocrisy, language manipulation and the fact of putting individual interests ahead of collective welfare fit badly with collective issues such as epidemics. Hopefully, also examples to the contrary have been observed during hair loss treatment.The story ends with the fireworks in Oran and the depiction of Dr Rieux’s last feelings. While he is satisfied because of his medical performance and his activity as a witness of the plague, he is concerned about future disasters to come.

When hair loss treatment will have passed, it will be time for us as well to review our life during these months. For now, we are just looking forward to achieving our particular ‘part V’.AbstractThis study addresses the existing gap in literature that ethnographically examines the experiences of Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency in clinical spaces. All of the participants in this study presented to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of non-urgent health conditions.

Patient shadowing was employed to explore the challenges that this population face in unique clinical settings like the ED. This relatively new methodology facilitates obtaining nuanced understandings of clinical contexts under study in ways that quantitative approaches and survey research do not. Drawing from the field of medical anthropology and approach of narrative medicine, the collected data are presented through the use of clinical ethnographic vignettes and thick description.

The conceptual framework of health-related deservingness guided the analysis undertaken in this study. Structural stigma was used as a complementary framework in analysing the emergent themes in the data collected. The results and analysis from this study were used to develop an argument for the consideration of language as a distinct social determinant of health.emergency medicinemedical anthropologymedical humanitiesData availability statementData sharing not applicable as no datasets were generated and/or analysed for this study..

IntroductionLa Peste (Camus 1947) has served buy propecia online as a basis for several critical works, including some in the field of medical humanities (Bozzaro 2018. Deudon 1988. Tuffuor and Payne 2017) buy propecia online. Frequently interpreted as an allegory of Nazism (with the plague as a symbol of the German occupation of France) (Finel-Honigman 1978. Haroutunian 1964), it has also received philosophical readings beyond the sociopolitical context in which it was written (Lengers 1994).

Other scholars, on the other hand, have centred their analyses on its literary aspects (Steel 2016).The hair loss treatment propecia buy propecia online has increased general interest about historical and fictional epidemics. La Peste, as one of the most famous literary works about this topic, has been revisited by many readers during recent months, leading to an unexpected growth in sales in certain countries (Wilsher 2020. Zaretsky 2020). Apart from that, commentaries about the novel, especially among health sciences scholars, buy propecia online have emerged with a renewed interest (Banerjee et al. 2020.

Bate 2020. Vandekerckhove 2020 buy propecia online. Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020). This sudden curiosity is easy to understand if we consider both La Peste’s literary value, and people’s desire to discover real or fictional situations similar to theirs. Indeed, Oran inhabitants’ experiences are not quite far from our own, even buy propecia online if geographical, chronological and, specially, scientific factors (two different diseases occurring at two different stages in the history of medical development) prevent us from establishing too close resemblances between both situations.Furthermore, it will not be strange if hair loss treatment serves as a frame for fictional works in the near future.

Other narrative plays were based on historical epidemics, such as Daniel Defoe’s A Journal of the Plague Year or Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020. Withington 2020). The biggest propecia in the last century, the so-called ‘Spanish Influenza’, has been described as not very fruitful in this sense, even if it buy propecia online produced famous novels such as Katherine A Porter’s Pale Horse, Pale Rider or John O’Hara’s The Doctor Son (Honigsbaum 2018. Hovanec 2011). The overlapping with another disaster like World War I has been argued as one of the reasons explaining this scarce production of fictional works (Honigsbaum 2018).

By contrast, we may think that hair loss treatment is having a global impact hardly overshadowed by other events, and buy propecia online that it will leave a significant mark on the collective memory.Drawing on the reading of La Peste, we point out in this essay different aspects of living under an epidemic that can be identified both in Camus’s work and in our current situation. We propose a trip throughout the novel, from its early beginning in Part I, when the Oranians are not aware of the threat to come, to its end in Part V, when they are relieved of the epidemic after several months of ravaging disasters.We think this journey along La Peste may be interesting both to health professionals and to the lay person, since all of them will be able to see themselves reflected in the characters from the novel. We do not skip critique of some aspects related to the authorities’ management of hair loss treatment, as Camus does concerning Oran’s rulers. However, what we want to foreground is La Peste’s intrinsic value, its suitability to be read now and after buy propecia online hair loss treatment has passed, when Camus’s novel endures as a solid art work and hair loss treatment remains only as a defeated plight.MethodsWe confronted our own experiences about hair loss treatment with a conventional reading of La Peste. A first reading of the novel was used to establish associations between those aspects which more saliently reminded us of hair loss treatment.

In a second reading, we searched for some examples to illustrate those aspects and tried to detect new associations. Subsequent readings of certain parts were done buy propecia online to integrate the information collected. Neither specific methods of literary analysis, nor systematic searches in the novel were applied. Selected paragraphs and ideas from Part I to Part V were prepared in a draft copy, and this manuscript was written afterwards.Part ISome phrases in the novel could be transposed word by word to our situation. This one pertaining to its start, for instance, may make us remember the first months of 2020:By now, it will be easy to accept that nothing could lead the people of our town to expect the events that took place in the spring of that year and which, as we later understood, buy propecia online were like the forerunners of the series of grave happenings that this history intends to describe.

(Camus 2002, Part I)By referring from the beginning to ‘the people of our town’, Camus is already suggesting an idea which is repeated all along the novel, and which may be well understood by us as hair loss treatment’s witnesses. Epidemics affect the community as a whole, they are present in everybody’s mind and their joys and sorrows are not individual, but collective. For example (and we are anticipating Part II), the narrator says:But, once the gates were closed, they all noticed that buy propecia online they were in the same boat, including the narrator himself, and that they had to adjust to the fact. (Camus 2002, Part II)Later, he will insist in this opposition between the concepts of ‘individual’, which used to prevail before the epidemic, and ‘collective’:One might say that the first effect of this sudden and brutal attack of the disease was to force the citizens of our town to act as though they had no individual feelings. (Camus 2002, Part II)There were no longer any individual destinies, but a collective history that was the plague, and feelings shared by all.

(Camus 2002, Part III)This distinction is not trivial, buy propecia online since the story will display a strong confrontation between those who get involved and help their neighbours and those who remain behaving selfishly. Related to this, Claudia Bozzaro has pointed out that the main topic in La Peste is solidarity and auistic love (Bozzaro 2018). We may add that the disease is so attached to people’s lives that the epidemic becomes the new everyday life:In the morning, they would return to the pestilence, that is to say, to routine. (Camus 2002, buy propecia online Part III)Being collective issues does not mean that epidemics always enhance auism and solidarity. As said by Wigand et al, they frequently produce ambivalent reactions, and one of them is the opposition between auism and maximised profit (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020).

Therefore, the dichotomy between individualism and collectivism, a central point in the characterisation of national cultures (Hofstede 2015), could play a role in epidemics. In fact, concerning hair loss treatment, some authors have described a buy propecia online greater impact of the propecia in those countries with higher levels of individualism (Maaravi et al. 2021. Ozkan et al. 2021).

However, this finding should be complemented with other national cultures’ aspects before concluding that collectivism itself exerts a protective role against epidemics. Concerning this, it has been shown how ‘power distance’ frequently intersects with collectivism, being only a few countries in which the last one coexists with a small distance to power, namely with a capacity to disobey the power authority (Gupta, Shoja, and Mikalef 2021). Moreover, those countries classically classified as ‘collectivist’ (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Vietnam, etc.) are also characterised by high levels of power distance, and their citizens have been quite often forced to adhere to hair loss treatment restrictions and punished if not (Gupta, Shoja, and Mikalef 2021). Thus, it is important to consider that individualism is not always opposed to ‘look after each other’ (Ozkan et al. 2021, 9).

For instance, the European region, seen as a whole as highly ‘individualistic’, holds some of the most advanced welfare protection systems worldwide. It is worth considering too that collectivism may hide sometimes a hard institutional authority or a lack in civil freedoms.Coming back to La Peste, we may think that Camus’s Oranians are not particularly ‘collectivist’. Their initial description highlights that they are mainly interested in their own businesses and affairs:Our fellow-citizens work a good deal, but always in order to make money. They are especially interested in trade and first of all, as they say, they are engaged in doing business. (Camus 2002, Part I)And later, we see some of them trying selfishly to leave the city by illegal methods.

By contrast, we observe in the novel some examples of more ‘collectivistic’ attitudes, such as the discipline of those quarantined at the football pitch, and, over all, the main characters’ behaviour, which is generally driven by auism and common goals.Turning to another topic, the plague in Oran and hair loss treatment are similar regarding their animal origin. This is not rare since many infectious diseases pass to humans through contact with animal vectors, being rodents, especially rats (through rat fleas), the most common carriers of plague bacteria (CDC. N.d.a, ECDC. N.d, Pollitzer 1954). Concerning hair loss, even if further research about its origin is needed, the most recent investigations conducted in China by the WHO establish a zoonotic transmission as the most probable pathway (Joint WHO-China Study Team 2021).

In Camus’s novel, the animal’s link to the epidemic seemed very clear since the beginning:Things got to the point where Infodoc (the agency for information and documentation, ‘ all you need to know on any subject’) announced in its free radio news programme that 6,231 rats had been collected and burned in a single day, the 25th. This figure, which gave a clear meaning to the daily spectacle that everyone in town had in front of their eyes, disconcerted them even more. (Camus 2002, Part I)This accuracy in figures is familiar to us. People nowadays have become very used to the statistical aspects of the propecia, due to the continuous updates in epidemiological parameters launched by the media and the authorities. Camus was aware about the relevance of figures in epidemics, which always entail:…required registration and statistical tasks.

(Camus 2002, Part II)Because of this, the novel is scattered with numbers, most of them concerning the daily death toll, but others mentioning the number of rats picked up, as we have seen, or combining the number of deaths with the time passed since the start of the epidemic:“ Will there be an autumn of plague?. Professor B answers. €˜ No’ ”, “ One hundred and twenty-four dead. The total for the ninety-fourth day of the plague.” (Camus 2002, Part II)We permit ourselves to introduce here a list of recurring topics in La Peste, since the salience of statistical information is one of them. These topics, some of which will be treated later, appear several times in the novel, in various contexts and stages in the evolution of the epidemic.

We synthesise them in Table 1, coupled with a hair loss treatment parallel example extracted from online press. This ease to find a current example for each topic suggests that they are not exclusive of plague or of Camus’s mindset, but shared by most epidemics.View this table:Table 1 Recurring topics in La Peste. Each topic is accompanied by two examples from the novel and one concerning hair loss treatment, extracted from online press.Talking about journalism and the media (one of the topics above), we might say that hair loss treatment’s coverage is frequently too optimistic when managing good news and too alarming when approaching the bad. Media’s ‘exaggerated’ approach to health issues is not new. It was already a concern for medical journals’ editors a century ago (Reiling 2013) and it continues to be it for these professionals in recent times (Barbour et al.

2008). It is well known that media tries to attract spectators’ attention by making the news more appealing. However, they deal with the risk of expanding unreliable information, which may be pernicious for the public opinion. Related to the intention of ‘garnishing’ the news, Aslam et al. (2020) have described that 82% of more than 100 000 pieces of information about hair loss treatment appearing in media from different countries carried an emotional, either negative (52%) or positive (30%) component, with only 18% of them considered as ‘neutral’ (Aslam et al.

2020). Some evidence about this tendency to make news more emotional was described in former epidemics. For instance, a study conducted in Singapore in 2009 during the H1N1 crisis showed how press releases by the Ministry of Health were substantially transformed when passed to the media, by increasing their emotional appeal and by changing their dominant frame or their tone (Lee and Basnyat 2013). In La Peste, this superficial way of managing information by the media is also observed:The newspapers followed the order that they had been given, to be optimistic at any cost. (Camus 2002, Part IV)At the first stages of the epidemic in Oran, journalists proclaim the end of the dead rats’ invasion as something to be celebrated.

Dr Rieux, the character through which Camus symbolises caution (and comparable nowadays to trustful scientists, well-informed journalists or sensible authorities), exposes then his own angle, quite far from suggesting optimism:The vendors of the evening papers were shouting that the invasion of rats had ended. But Rieux found his patient lying half out of bed, one hand on his belly and the other around his neck, convulsively vomiting reddish bile into a rubbish bin. (Camus 2002, Part I)Camus, who worked as a journalist for many years, insists afterwards on this cursory interest that some media devote to the epidemic, more eager to grab the noise than the relevant issues beneath it:The press, which had had so much to say about the business of the rats, fell silent. This is because rats die in the street and people in their bedrooms. And newspapers are only concerned with the street.

(Camus 2002, Part I)By then, Oranians continue rejecting the epidemic as an actual threat, completely immersed in that phase that dominates the beginning of all epidemics and is characterised by ‘denial and disbelief’ (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020, 443):A pestilence does not have human dimensions, so people tell themselves that it is unreal, that it is a bad dream which will end. […] The people of our town were no more guilty than anyone else, they merely forgot to be modest and thought that everything was still possible for them, which implied that pestilence was impossible. They continued with business, with making arrangements for travel and holding opinions. Why should they have thought about the plague, which negates the future, negates journeys and debate?. They considered themselves free and no one will ever be free as long as there is plague, pestilence and famine.

(Camus 2002, Part I)Probably to avoid citizens' disapproval, among other reasons, the Oranian Prefecture (health authority in Camus' novel) does not want to go too far when judging the relevance of the epidemic. While not directly exposed, we can guess in this fragment the tone of the Prefect’s message, his intention to convey confidence despite his own doubts:These cases were not specific enough to be really disturbing and there was no doubt that the population would remain calm. None the less, for reasons of caution which everyone could understand, the Prefect was taking some preventive measures. If they were interpreted and applied in the proper way, these measures were such that they would put a definite stop to any threat of epidemic. As a result, the Prefect did not for a moment doubt that the citizens under his charge would co-operate in the most zealous manner with what he was doing.

(Camus 2002, Part I)The relevant role acquired by health authorities during epidemics is another topic listed in our table. Language use, on the other hand, is an issue linkable both with the media topic and with this one. As in La Peste, during hair loss treatment we have seen some public figures using words not always truthfully, carrying out a careful selection of words that serves to the goal of conveying certain interests in each moment. Dr Rieux refers in Part I to this language manipulation by the authorities:The measures that had been taken were insufficient, that was quite clear. As for the ‘ specially equipped wards’, he knew what they were.

Two outbuildings hastily cleared of other patients, their windows sealed up and the whole surrounded by a cordon sanitaire. (Camus 2002, Part I)He illustrates the need of frankness, the preference for clarity in language, which is often the clarity in thinking:No. I phoned Richard to say we needed comprehensive measures, not fine words, and that either we must set up a real barrier to the epidemic, or nothing at all. (Camus 2002, Part I)At the end of this part, his fears about the inadequacy of not taking strict measures are confirmed. Oranian hospitals become overwhelmed, as they are now in many places worldwide due to hair loss treatment.Part IILeft behind the phases of ‘denial and disbelief’ and of ‘fear and panic’, it appears among the Oranians the ‘acceptance paired with resignation’ (Wigand, Becker, and Steger 2020, 443):Then we knew that our separation was going to last, and that we ought to try to come to terms with time.

[…] In particular, all of the people in our town very soon gave up, even in public, whatever habit they may have acquired of estimating the length of their separation. (Camus 2002, Part II)In hair loss treatment as well, even if border closure has not been so immovable as in Oran, many people have seen themselves separated from their loved ones and some of them have not yet had the possibility of reunion. This is why, in the actual propecia, the idea of temporal horizons has emerged like it appeared in Camus’s epidemic. In Spain, the general lockdown in March and April 2020 made people establish the summer as their temporal horizon, a time in which they could resume their former habits and see their relatives again. This became partially true, and people were allowed in summer to travel inside the country and to some other countries nearby.

However, there existed some reluctance to visit ill or aged relatives, due to the fear of infecting them, and some families living in distant countries were not able to get together. Moreover, autumn brought an increase in the number of cases (‘the second wave’) and countries returned to limit their internal and external movements.Bringing all this together, many people nowadays have opted to discard temporal horizons. As Oranians, they have noted that the epidemic follows its own rhythm and it is useless to fight against it. Nonetheless, it is in human nature not to resign, so abandoning temporal horizons does not mean to give up longing for the recovery of normal life. This vision, neither maintaining vain hopes nor resigning, is in line with Camus’s philosophy, an author who wrote that ‘hope, contrary to what it is usually thought, is the same to resignation.’ (Camus 1939, 83.

Cited by Haroutunian 1964, 312 (translation is ours)), and that ‘there is not love to human life but with despair about human life.’ (Camus 1958, 112–5. Cited by Haroutunian 1964, 312–3 (translation is ours)).People nowadays deal with resignation relying on daily life pleasures (being not allowed to make further plans or trips) and in company from the nearest ones (as they cannot gather with relatives living far away). Second, they observe the beginning of vaccination campaigns as a first step of the final stage, and summer 2021, reflecting what happened with summer 2020, has been fixed as a temporal horizon. This preference for summers has an unavoidable metaphorical nuance, and their linking to joy, long trips and life in the streets may be the reason for which we choose them to be opposed to the lockdown and restrictions of the propecia.We alluded previously to the manipulation of language, and figures, as relevant as they are, they are not free from manipulation either. Tarrou, a close friend to Dr Rieux, points out in this part of the novel how this occurred:Once more, Tarrou was the person who gave the most accurate picture of our life as it was then.

Naturally he was following the course of the plague in general, accurately observing that a turning point in the epidemic was marked by the radio no longer announcing some hundreds of deaths per week, but 92, 107 and 120 deaths a day. €˜The newspapers and the authorities are engaged in a battle of wits with the plague. They think that they are scoring points against it, because 130 is a lower figure than 910.’ (Camus 2002, Part II)Tarrou collaborates with the health teams formed to tackle the plague. Regarding these volunteers and workers, Camus refuses to consider them as heroes, as many essential workers during hair loss treatment have rejected to be named as that. The writer thinks their actions are the natural behaviour of good people, not heroism but ‘a logical consequence’:The whole question was to prevent the largest possible number of people from dying and suffering a definitive separation.

There was only one way to do this, which was to fight the plague. There was nothing admirable about this truth, it simply followed as a logical consequence. (Camus 2002, Part II)We consider suitable to talk here about two issues which represent, nowadays, a great part of hair loss treatment fears and hopes, respectively. New genetic variants and treatments. Medical achievements are another recurrent issue included in table 1, and we write about them here because it is in Part II where Camus writes for the first time about treatments, and where it insists on an idea aforementioned in Part I.

That the plague bacillus affecting Oran is different from previous variants:…the microbe differed very slightly from the bacillus of plague as traditionally defined. (Camus 2002, Part II)Related to hair loss treatment new variants, they represent a challenge because of two main reasons. Their higher transmissibility and/or severity and their higher propensity to skip the effect of natural or treatment-induced immunity. Public health professionals are determining which is the actual threat of all the new variants discovered, such as those first characterised in the UK (Public Health England 2020), South Africa (Tegally et al. 2021) or Brazil (Fujino et al.

2021). In La Peste, Dr Rieux is always suspecting that the current bacteria they are dealing with is different from the one in previous epidemics of plague. Since several genetic variations for the bacillus Yersinia pestis have been characterised (Cui et al. 2012), it could be possible that the epidemic in Oran originated from a new one. However, we should not forget that we are analysing a literary work, and that scientific accuracy is not a necessary goal in it.

In fact, Rieux’s reluctances have to do more with clinical aspects than with microbiological ones. He doubts since the beginning, relying exclusively on the symptoms observed, and continues doing it after the laboratory analysis:I was able to have an analysis made in which the laboratory thinks it can detect the plague bacillus. However, to be precise, we must say that certain specific modifications of the microbe do not coincide with the classic description of plague. (Camus 2002, Part II)Camus is consistent with this idea and many times he mentions the bacillus to highlight its oddity. Insisting on the literary condition of the work, and among other possible explanations, he is maybe declaring that that in the novel is not a common (biological, natural) bacteria, but the Nazism bacteria.Turning to treatments, they constitute the principal resource that the global community has to defeat the hair loss treatment propecia.

Vaccination campaigns have started all over the world, and three types of hair loss treatments are being applied in the European Union, after their respective statements of efficacy and security (Baden et al. 2021. Polack et al. 2020. Voysey et al.

2021), while a fourth treatment has just recently been approved (EMA 2021a). Although some concerns regarding the safety of two of these treatments have been raised recently (EMA 2021b. EMA 2021c), vaccination plans are going ahead, being adapted according to the state of knowledge at each moment. Some of these treatments are mRNA-based (Baden et al. 2021.

Polack et al. 2020), while others use a viral vector (Bos et al. 2020. Voysey et al. 2021).

They are mainly two-shot treatments, with one exception (Bos et al. 2020), and complete immunity is thought to be acquired 2 weeks after the last shot (CDC. N.d.b, Voysey et al. 2021). Other countries such as China or Russia, on the other hand, were extremely early in starting their vaccination campaigns, and are distributing among their citizens different treatments than the aforementioned (Logunov et al.

2021. Zhang et al. 2021).Even if at least three types of plague treatments had been created by the time the novel takes place (Sun 2016), treatments do not play an important role in La Peste, in which therapeutic measures (the serum) are more important than prophylactic ones. Few times in the novel the narrator refers to prophylactic inoculations:There was still no possibility of vaccinating with preventive serum except in families already affected by the disease. (Camus 2002, Part II)Deudon has pointed out that Camus mixes up therapeutic serum and treatment (Deudon 1988), and in fact there exists a certain amount of confusion.

All along the novel, the narrator focuses on the prophylactic goals of the serum, which is applied to people already infected (Othon’s son, Tarrou, Grand…). However, both in the example above (which can be understood as vaccinating household contacts or already affected individuals) and in others, the differences between treating and vaccinating are not clear:After the morning admissions which he was in charge of himself, the patients were vaccinated and the swellings lanced. (Camus 2002, Part II)In any case, this is another situation in which Camus stands aside from scientific matters, which are to him less relevant in his novel than philosophical or literary ones. The distance existing between the relevance of treatments in hair loss treatment and the superficial manner with which Camus treats the topic in La Peste exemplifies this.Part IIIIn part III, the plague’s ravages become tougher. The narrator turns his focus to burials and their disturbance, a frequent topic in epidemics’ narrative (table 1).

Camus knew how acutely increasing demands and hygienic requirements affect funeral habits during epidemics:Everything really happened with the greatest speed and the minimum of risk. (Camus 2002, Part III)Like many other processes during epidemics, the burial process becomes a protocol. When protocolised, everything seems to work well and rapidly. But this perfect mechanism is the Prefecture’s goal, not Rieux’s. He reveals in this moment an aspect in his character barely shown before.

Irony.The whole thing was well organized and the Prefect expressed his satisfaction. He even told Rieux that, when all was said and done, this was preferable to hearses driven by black slaves which one read about in the chronicles of earlier plagues. €˜ Yes,’ Rieux said. €˜ The burial is the same, but we keep a card index. No one can deny that we have made progress.’ (Camus 2002, Part III)Even if this characteristic may seem new in Dr Rieux, we must bear in mind that he is the story narrator, and the narration is ironic from time to time.

For instance, speaking precisely about the burials:The relatives were invited to sign a register –which just showed the difference that there may be between men and, for example, dogs. You can keep check of human beings-. (Camus 2002, Part III)In Camus’s philosophy, the absurd is a core issue. According to Lengers, Rieux is ironic because he is a kind of Sisyphus who has understood the absurdity of plague (Lengers 1994). The response to the absurd is to rebel (Camus 2013), and Rieux does it by helping his fellow humans without questioning anything.

He does not pursue any other goal than doing his duty, thus humour (as a response to dire situations) stands out from him when he observes others celebrating irrelevant achievements, such as the Prefect with his burial protocol. In the field of medical ethics, Lengers has highlighted the importance of Camus’s perspective when considering ‘the immediacy of life rather than abstract values’ (Lengers 1994, 250). Rieux himself is quite sure that his solid commitment is not ‘abstract’, and, even if he falls into abstraction, the importance relies on protecting human lives and not in the name given to that task:Was it truly an abstraction, spending his days in the hospital where the plague was working overtime, bringing the number of victims up to five hundred on average per week?. Yes, there was an element of abstraction and unreality in misfortune. But when an abstraction starts to kill you, you have to get to work on it.

(Camus 2002, Part II)Farewells during hair loss treatment may have not been particularly pleasant for some families. Neither those dying at nursing homes nor in hospitals could be accompanied by their families as previously, due to corpses management protocols, restrictions of external visitors and hygienic measures in general. However, as weeks passed by, certain efforts were made to ease this issue, allowing people to visit their dying beloved sticking to strict preventive measures. On the other hand, the number of people attending funeral masses and cemeteries was also limited, which affected the conventional development of ceremonies as well. Hospitals had to deal with daily tolls of deaths never seen before, and the overcrowding of mortuaries made us see rows of coffins placed in unusual spaces, such as ice rinks (transformation of facilities is another topic in table 1).We turn now to two other points which hair loss treatment has not evaded.

s among essential workers and epidemics’ economic consequences. The author links burials with s among essential workers because gravediggers constitute one of the most affected professions, and connects this fact with the economic recession because unemployment is behind the large availability of workers to replace the dead gravediggers:Many of the male nurses and the gravediggers, who were at first official, then casual, died of the plague. […] The most surprising thing was that there was never a shortage of men to do the job, for as long as the epidemic lasted. […] When the plague really took hold of the town, its very immoderation had one quite convenient outcome, because it disrupted the whole of economic life and so created quite a large number of unemployed. […] Poverty always triumphed over fear, to the extent that work was always paid according to the risk involved.

(Camus 2002, Part III)The effects of the plague over the economic system are one of our recurrent topics (table 1). The plague in Oran, as it forces to close the city, impacts all trading exchanges. In addition, it forbids travellers from arriving to the city, with the economic influence that that entails:This plague was the ruination of tourism. (Camus 2002, Part II)Oranians, who, as we saw, were very worried about making money, are especially affected by an event which jeopardises it. In hair loss treatment, for one reason or for another, most of the countries are suffering economic consequences, since the impact on normal life from the epidemic (another recurrent topic) means also an impact on the normal development of trading activities.Part IVIn Part IV we witness the first signals of a stabilisation of the epidemic:It seemed that the plague had settled comfortably into its peak and was carrying out its daily murders with the precision and regularity of a good civil servant.

In theory, in the opinion of experts, this was a good sign. The graph of the progress of the plague, starting with its constant rise, followed by this long plateau, seemed quite reassuring. (Camus 2002, Part IV)At this time, we consider interesting to expand the topic about the transformation of facilities. We mentioned the case of ice rinks during hair loss treatment, and we bring up now the use of a football pitch as a quarantine camp in Camus’s novel, a scene which has reminded some scholars of the metaphor of Nazism and concentration camps (Finel-Honigman 1978). In Spain, among other measures, a fairground was enabled as a field hospital during the first wave, and it is plausible that many devices created with other purposes were used in tasks attached to healthcare provision during those weeks, as occurred in Oran’s pitch with the loudspeakers:Then the loudspeakers, which in better times had served to introduce the teams or to declare the results of games, announced in a tinny voice that the internees should go back to their tents so that the evening meal could be distributed.

(Camus 2002, Part IV)Related to this episode, we can also highlight the opposition between science and humanism that Camus does. The author alerts us about the dangers of a dehumanised science, of choosing procedures perfectly efficient regardless of their lack in human dignity:The men held out their hands, two ladles were plunged into two of the pots and emerged to unload their contents onto two tin plates. The car drove on and the process was repeated at the next tent.‘ It’s scientific,’ Tarrou told the administrator.‘ Yes,’ he replied with satisfaction, as they shook hands. €˜ It’s scientific.’ (Camus 2002, Part IV)Several cases with favourable outcomes mark Part IV final moments and prepare the reader for the end of the epidemic. To describe these signs of recovering, the narrator turns back to two elements with a main role in the novel.

Rats and figures. In this moment, the first ones reappear and the second ones seem to be declining:He had seen two live rats come into his house through the street door. Neighbours had informed him that the creatures were also reappearing in their houses. Behind the walls of other houses there was a hustle and bustle that had not been heard for months. Rieux waited for the general statistics to be published, as they were at the start of each week.

They showed a decline in the disease. (Camus 2002, Part IV)Part VGiven that we continue facing hair loss treatment, and that forecasts about its end are not easy, we cannot compare ourselves with the Oranians once they have reached the end of the epidemic, what occurs in this part. However, we can analyse our current situation, characterised by a widespread, though cautious, confidence motivated by the beginning of vaccination campaigns, referring it to the events narrated in Part V.Even more than the Oranians, since we feel further than them from the end of the problem, we are cautious about not to anticipate celebrations. From time to time, however, we lend ourselves to dream relying on what the narrator calls ‘a great, unadmitted hope’. hair loss treatment took us by surprise and everyone wants to ‘reorganise’ their life, as Oranians do, but patience is an indispensable component to succeed, as fictional and historical epidemics show us.Although this sudden decline in the disease was unexpected, the towns-people were in no hurry to celebrate.

The preceding months, though they had increased the desire for liberation, had also taught them prudence and accustomed them to count less and less on a rapid end to the epidemic. However, this new development was the subject of every conversation and, in the depths of people’s hearts, there was a great, unadmitted hope. […] One of the signs that a return to a time of good health was secretly expected (though no one admitted the fact) was that from this moment on people readily spoke, with apparent indifference, about how life would be reorganized after the plague. (Camus 2002, Part V)We put our hope on vaccination. Social distancing and other hygienic measures have proved to be effective, but treatments would bring us a more durable solution without compromising so hardly many economic activities and social habits.

As we said, a more important role of scientific aspects is observed in hair loss treatment if compared with La Peste (an expected fact if considered that Camus’s story is an artistic work, that he skips sometimes the most complex scientific issues of the plague and that health sciences have evolved substantially during last decades). Oranians, in fact, achieve the end of the epidemic not through clearly identified scientific responses but with certain randomness:All one could do was to observe that the sickness seemed to be going as it had arrived. The strategy being used against it had not changed. It had been ineffective yesterday, and now it was apparently successful. One merely had the feeling that the disease had exhausted itself, or perhaps that it was retiring after achieving all its objectives.

In a sense, its role was completed. (Camus 2002, Part V)They receive the announcement made by the Prefecture of reopening the town’s gates in 2 weeks time with enthusiasm. Dealing with concrete dates gives them certainty, helps them fix the temporal horizons we wrote about. This is also the case when they are told that preventive measures would be lifted in 1 month. Camus shows us then how the main characters are touched as well by this positive atmosphere:That evening Tarrou and Rieux, Rambert and the rest, walked in the midst of the crowd, and they too felt they were treading on air.

Long after leaving the boulevards Tarrou and Rieux could still hear the sounds of happiness following them… (Camus 2002, Part V)Then, Tarrou points out a sign of recovery coming from the animal world. In a direct zoological chain, infected fleas have vanished from rats, which have been able again to multiply across the city, making the cats abandon their hiding places and to go hunting after them again. At the final step of this chain, Tarrou sees the human being. He remembers the old man who used to spit to the cats beneath his window:At a time when the noise grew louder and more joyful, Tarrou stopped. A shape was running lightly across the dark street.

It was a cat, the first that had been seen since the spring. It stopped for a moment in the middle of the road, hesitated, licked its paw, quickly passed it across its right ear, then carried on its silent way and vanished into the night. Tarrou smiled. The little old man, too, would be happy. (Camus 2002, Part V)Unpleasant things as a town with rats running across its streets, or a man spending his time spitting on a group of cats, constitute normality as much as the reopening of gates or the reboot of commerce.

However, when Camus speaks directly about normality, he highlights more appealing habits. He proposes common leisure activities (restaurants, theatres) as symbols of human life, since he opposes them to Cottard’s life, which has become that of a ‘wild animal’:At least in appearance he [ Cottard ] retired from the world and from one day to the next started to live like a wild animal. He no longer appeared in restaurants, at the theatre or in his favourite cafés. (Camus 2002, Part V)We do not disclose why Cottard’s reaction to the end of the epidemic is different from most of the Oranians’. In any case, the narrator insists later on the assimilation between common pleasures and normality:‘ Perhaps,’ Cottard said, ‘ Perhaps so.

But what do you call a return to normal life?. €™ ‘ New films in the cinema,’ said Tarrou with a smile. (Camus 2002, Part V)Cinema, as well as theatre, live music and many other cultural events have been cancelled or obliged to modify their activities due to hair loss treatment. Several bars and restaurants have closed, and spending time in those who remain open has become an activity which many people tend to avoid, fearing contagion. Thus, normality in our understanding is linked as well to these simple and pleasant habits, and the complete achievement of them will probably signify for us the desired defeat of the propecia.In La Peste, love is also seen as a simple good to be fully recovered after the plague.

While Rieux goes through the ‘reborn’ Oran, it is lovers’ gatherings what he highlights. Unlike them, everyone who, during the epidemic, sought for goals different from love (such as faith or money, for instance) remain lost when the epidemic has ended:For all the people who, on the contrary, had looked beyond man to something that they could not even imagine, there had been no reply. (Camus 2002, Part V)And this is because lovers, as the narrator says:If they had found that they wanted, it was because they had asked for the only thing that depended on them. (Camus 2002, Part V)We have spoken before about language manipulation, hypocrisy and public figures’ roles during epidemics. Camus, during Dr Rieux’s last visit to the old asthmatic man, makes this frank and humble character criticise, with a point of irony, the authorities’ attitude concerning tributes to the dead:‘ Tell me, doctor, is it true that they’re going to put up a monument to the victims of the plague?.

€™â€˜ So the papers say. A pillar or a plaque.’‘ I knew it!. And there’ll be speeches.’The old man gave a strangled laugh.‘ I can hear them already. €œ Our dead…” Then they’ll go and have dinner.’ (Camus 2002, Part V)The old man illustrates wisely the authorities’ propensity for making speeches. He knows that most of them usually prefer grandiloquence rather than common words, and seizes perfectly their tone when he imitates them (‘Our dead…’).

We have also got used, during hair loss treatment, to these types of messages. We have also heard about ‘our old people’, ‘our youth’, ‘our essential workers’ and even ‘our dead’. Behind this tone, however, there could be an intention to hide errors, or to falsely convey carefulness. Honest rulers do not usually need nice words. They just want them to be accurate.We have seen as well some tributes to the victims during hair loss treatment, some of which we can doubt whether they serve to victims’ relief or to authorities’ promotion.

We want rulers to be less aware of their own image and to stress truthfulness as a goal, even if this is a hard requirement not only for them, but for every single person. Language is essential in this issue, we think, since it is prone to be twisted and to become untrue. The old asthmatic man illustrates it with his ‘There’ll be speeches’ and his ‘Our dead…’, but this is not the only time in the novel in which Camus brings out the topic. For instance, he does so when he equates silence (nothing can be thought as further from wordiness) with truth:It is at the moment of misfortune that one becomes accustomed to truth, that is to say to silence. (Camus 2002, Part II)or when he makes a solid statement against false words:…I understood that all the misfortunes of mankind came from not stating things in clear terms.

(Camus 2002, Part IV)The old asthmatic, in fact, while praising the deceased Tarrou, remarks that he used to admire him because ‘he didn’t talk just for the sake of it.’ (Camus 2002, Part V).Related to this topic, what the old asthmatic says about political authorities may be transposed in our case to other public figures, such as scholars and researchers, media leaders, businessmen and women, health professionals… and, if we extend the scope, to every single citizen. Because hypocrisy, language manipulation and the fact of putting individual interests ahead of collective welfare fit badly with collective issues such as epidemics. Hopefully, also examples to the contrary have been observed during hair loss treatment.The story ends with the fireworks in Oran and the depiction of Dr Rieux’s last feelings. While he is satisfied because of his medical performance and his activity as a witness of the plague, he is concerned about future disasters to come. When hair loss treatment will have passed, it will be time for us as well to review our life during these months.

For now, we are just looking forward to achieving our particular ‘part V’.AbstractThis study addresses the existing gap in literature that ethnographically examines the experiences of Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency in clinical spaces. All of the participants in this study presented to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of non-urgent health conditions. Patient shadowing was employed to explore the challenges that this population face in unique clinical settings like the ED. This relatively new methodology facilitates obtaining nuanced understandings of clinical contexts under study in ways that quantitative approaches and survey research do not. Drawing from the field of medical anthropology and approach of narrative medicine, the collected data are presented through the use of clinical ethnographic vignettes and thick description.

The conceptual framework of health-related deservingness guided the analysis undertaken in this study. Structural stigma was used as a complementary framework in analysing the emergent themes in the data collected. The results and analysis from this study were used to develop an argument for the consideration of language as a distinct social determinant of health.emergency medicinemedical anthropologymedical humanitiesData availability statementData sharing not applicable as no datasets were generated and/or analysed for this study..

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Low grade intraventricular haemorrhage and cerebral palsyNicky Hollebrandse and colleagues describe the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of almost 500 extremely preterm infants born before 28 week’s gestation and relate these to the presence and severity of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) that was identified in the propecia drug newborn http://andreabroaddus.com/?p=1 period. It is particularly valuable that they achieved 91.4% follow-up of so many patients and to an age when assessments can be more detailed. When no IVH was identified, cerebral palsy was observed in 8% of the infants and impaired academic ability in 16% propecia drug.

With grade 1 and 2 IVH, cerebral palsy increased to 15% and 18% respectively, with no increase in the risk of impaired cognitive outcomes. With more severe IVH, risks of cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment increased further. Around 5% of the infants with grade 1 and 2 IVH developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) later propecia drug.

The authors did not control for this and they considered it possible that IVH could be part of the causal pathway for this lesion. The infants did not have MRI scans. Later ultrasound detectable PVL could account for some but not most of the observed cerebral palsy in infants with low propecia drug grade IVH.

Nohaa Gorma and Stephen Miller highlight the prime importance of school age outcomes over earlier measures. They emphasise the need to investigate interventions during and beyond the neonatal period, including the social environment and support provided to families, if we are to propecia drug optimise the outcomes for these children. See pages F4 and F2Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) on term equivalent MRI scan is not predictive of later cognitive abnormality or cerebral palsyThere have been a number of papers in the journal recently looking at the relationship between MRI scan findings at term and outcome in preterm infants.

Chandra Prakash Rath and colleagues performed a meta-analysis of studies evaluating the significance of DEHSI. They included propecia drug 1832 preterm infants who had MRI scans at term equivalent age and assessments of cognitive ability and cerebral palsy using validated instruments. At 1 year of age or older.

DEHSI was common and was not a useful predictor of either cognitive outcome or cerebral palsy. See page F9Opaque wraps and pulse oximeter readingsPrakash Kannan Loganathan and colleagues investigated whether the use of an opaque wrap over the pulse oximeter probe affected the propecia drug performance of the pulse oximeter in 96 clinically stable newborn infants. They were interested in the speed with which the oximeter displayed valid data and the distribution of the SpO2 readings obtained.

They evaluated this for propecia drug Masimo and Nellcor oximeters. The use of the opaque wrap had no important effect on the performance of either oximeter type. For the study period the infants were monitored simultaneously using both a Nellcor and a Masimo oximter, permitting a comparison of the readings between the two devices as an interesting additional finding.

The mean SpO2 obtained with the Masimo oximiter was 2.85% higher than the mean SpO2 simultaneously obtained propecia drug with the Nellcor oximeter. The infants were clinically stable and this difference was observed when readings were typically in the low to mid 90 s. Both devices are providing an estimate of the arterial oxygen saturation and neither should be considered a gold standard over the other.

However a difference in the apparent calibration of the two devices of this magnitude demonstrated in a reasonably large comparison in the key region of clinical interest for newborn infants could have important clinical implications propecia drug as the devices are used interchangeably for a range of clinical indications related to specific SpO2 ranges. See page F57Preterm births during lockdownGitte Hedermann and colleagues were among the first to report observational data from the hair loss treatment lockdown period suggesting a reduction in the number of extremely preterm births. In comparison with the same time period during the preceding 5 years there were significantly fewer extremely preterm deliveries in propecia drug Denmark during lockdown, with no change in total deliveries.

Similar observations have been reported from elsewhere and raise questions about the contributing factors, which will be a rich source of new research as larger population datasets become available for analysis. Wouldn’t it be nice if slowing the pace of life for pregnant women is enough to improve pregnancy outcomes?. It is unlikely that the findings will be the same in all datasets because the degree of lockdown will be variable and the extent propecia drug to which important healthcare delivery is disrupted could have an adverse impact.

See page F93Fetal haemoglobin levels and bronchopulmonary dysplasiaWilliam Hellstrom and colleagues analysed the fetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels on almost 12 000 blood gas samples taken during the first week of life in 452 preterm infants born before 30 week’s gestation. They found that infants whose HbF levels fell the most during week one after birth were at highest risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). They also analysed arterial PO2 levels and these were significantly lower in the infants who developed BPD, suggesting that the observation does not relate to simply to an effect mediated through changes propecia drug in oxygenation.

They hypothesise that the higher falls in HbF reflect sampling losses and replacement by transfusion and that there is a loss of endogenous blood components that are essential for normal organ development, such as insulin-like growth factor 1. The authors are investigating the potential propecia drug beneficial role of minimising the loss of endogenous blood components in an ongoing multicentre randomised trial using microsampling methods to greatly reduce sampling losses. See page F88Bowel ultrasound in the management of necrotising enterocolitisKaren Alexander and Colleagues provide a comprehensive overview of the use of bowel ultrasound scanning in the investigation and management of infants with suspected or confirmed necrotising enterocolitis.

There are lots of images of key features and the article will be of value to anyone increasing their use of this technique or introducing it. See page F96Despite significant advances in perinatal and neonatal care, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)—bleeding from blood vessels within the germinal matrix of the developing brain into the ventricular system—continues to affect 15%–20% of very preterm neonates and 45% of those born extremely preterm (EP).1 More than half of very preterm neonates will exhibit neurodevelopmental challenges as a consequence of IVH that range widely in severity across motor and cognitive domains.2 Such disabilities place a significant toll on affected children and their families, as well as on the education and healthcare system, propecia drug highlighting the need for timely interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and beyond.The study reported by Hollebrandse et al3 assesses the relationship between IVH and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of age in children born EP, using a population-based sample of 546 EP neonates and 679 matched term-born controls. This cohort is distinguished by remarkably high follow-up rates from three different timepoints.

In their study, Hollebrandse et al raise three critical issues in the investigation of the impact of IVH on neurodevelopmental outcomes. First is the importance of the age at which neurodevelopmental assessment occurs and its implications to understanding the long-term impacts of IVH propecia drug. Second is the extent to which different grades of IVH contribute to the spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Third is identifying interventions within NICU practice and postdischarge that can help mitigate the adverse impacts of IVH with attention to the timepoints at which these therapies are most supportive of neurodevelopmental outcomes.The age at which neurodevelopmental ….

Low grade intraventricular haemorrhage and cerebral palsyNicky Hollebrandse and colleagues describe the neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of almost 500 buy propecia online extremely preterm infants born before 28 week’s gestation and relate these to the presence and severity of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) that was identified in the newborn period. It is particularly valuable that they achieved 91.4% follow-up of so many patients and to an age when assessments can be more detailed. When no IVH was identified, cerebral palsy was observed in 8% of the buy propecia online infants and impaired academic ability in 16%. With grade 1 and 2 IVH, cerebral palsy increased to 15% and 18% respectively, with no increase in the risk of impaired cognitive outcomes.

With more severe IVH, risks of cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment increased further. Around 5% of the infants with grade 1 and 2 IVH developed cystic periventricular buy propecia online leukomalacia (PVL) later. The authors did not control for this and they considered it possible that IVH could be part of the causal pathway for this lesion. The infants did not have MRI scans.

Later ultrasound detectable PVL could account for some but not most of the observed cerebral palsy in infants with low buy propecia online grade IVH. Nohaa Gorma and Stephen Miller highlight the prime importance of school age outcomes over earlier measures. They emphasise buy propecia online the need to investigate interventions during and beyond the neonatal period, including the social environment and support provided to families, if we are to optimise the outcomes for these children. See pages F4 and F2Diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) on term equivalent MRI scan is not predictive of later cognitive abnormality or cerebral palsyThere have been a number of papers in the journal recently looking at the relationship between MRI scan findings at term and outcome in preterm infants.

Chandra Prakash Rath and colleagues performed a meta-analysis of studies evaluating the significance of DEHSI. They included 1832 preterm infants who had MRI scans at term equivalent age and assessments of cognitive ability buy propecia online and cerebral palsy using validated instruments. At 1 year of age or older. DEHSI was common and was not a useful predictor of either cognitive outcome or cerebral palsy.

See page F9Opaque wraps and pulse buy propecia online oximeter readingsPrakash Kannan Loganathan and colleagues investigated whether the use of an opaque wrap over the pulse oximeter probe affected the performance of the pulse oximeter in 96 clinically stable newborn infants. They were interested in the speed with which the oximeter displayed valid data and the distribution of the SpO2 readings obtained. They evaluated buy propecia online this for Masimo and Nellcor oximeters. The use of the opaque wrap had no important effect on the performance of either oximeter type.

For the study period the infants were monitored simultaneously using both a Nellcor and a Masimo oximter, permitting a comparison of the readings between the two devices as an interesting additional finding. The mean SpO2 obtained with the Masimo oximiter was 2.85% higher than the mean SpO2 simultaneously obtained with the buy propecia online Nellcor oximeter. The infants were clinically stable and this difference was observed when readings were typically in the low to mid 90 s. Both devices are providing an estimate of the arterial oxygen saturation and neither should be considered a gold standard over the other.

However a difference in the apparent calibration of the two devices of this magnitude demonstrated in a reasonably large buy propecia online comparison in the key region of clinical interest for newborn infants could have important clinical implications as the devices are used interchangeably for a range of clinical indications related to specific SpO2 ranges. See page F57Preterm births during lockdownGitte Hedermann and colleagues were among the first to report observational data from the hair loss treatment lockdown period suggesting a reduction in the number of extremely preterm births. In comparison with the buy propecia online same time period during the preceding 5 years there were significantly fewer extremely preterm deliveries in Denmark during lockdown, with no change in total deliveries. Similar observations have been reported from elsewhere and raise questions about the contributing factors, which will be a rich source of new research as larger population datasets become available for analysis.

Wouldn’t it be nice if slowing the pace of life for pregnant women is enough to improve pregnancy outcomes?. It is unlikely that the findings will buy propecia online be the same in all datasets because the degree of lockdown will be variable and the extent to which important healthcare delivery is disrupted could have an adverse impact. See page F93Fetal haemoglobin levels and bronchopulmonary dysplasiaWilliam Hellstrom and colleagues analysed the fetal haemoglobin (HbF) levels on almost 12 000 blood gas samples taken during the first week of life in 452 preterm infants born before 30 week’s gestation. They found that infants whose HbF levels fell the most during week one after birth were at highest risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

They also analysed arterial PO2 levels and these were significantly lower in the infants who developed BPD, suggesting that the observation does not buy propecia online relate to simply to an effect mediated through changes in oxygenation. They hypothesise that the higher falls in HbF reflect sampling losses and replacement by transfusion and that there is a loss of endogenous blood components that are essential for normal organ development, such as insulin-like growth factor 1. The authors are investigating buy propecia online the potential beneficial role of minimising the loss of endogenous blood components in an ongoing multicentre randomised trial using microsampling methods to greatly reduce sampling losses. See page F88Bowel ultrasound in the management of necrotising enterocolitisKaren Alexander and Colleagues provide a comprehensive overview of the use of bowel ultrasound scanning in the investigation and management of infants with suspected or confirmed necrotising enterocolitis.

There are lots of images of key features and the article will be of value to anyone increasing their use of this technique or introducing it. See page F96Despite significant advances in perinatal and neonatal care, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)—bleeding from blood vessels within the germinal matrix of the developing brain into the ventricular system—continues to affect 15%–20% of very preterm neonates and 45% of those born extremely preterm (EP).1 More than half of very preterm neonates will exhibit neurodevelopmental challenges as a consequence of IVH that buy propecia online range widely in severity across motor and cognitive domains.2 Such disabilities place a significant toll on affected children and their families, as well as on the education and healthcare system, highlighting the need for timely interventions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and beyond.The study reported by Hollebrandse et al3 assesses the relationship between IVH and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 8 years of age in children born EP, using a population-based sample of 546 EP neonates and 679 matched term-born controls. This cohort is distinguished by remarkably high follow-up rates from three different timepoints. In their study, Hollebrandse et al raise three critical issues in the investigation of the impact of IVH on neurodevelopmental outcomes.

First is the importance of the buy propecia online age at which neurodevelopmental assessment occurs and its implications to understanding the long-term impacts of IVH. Second is the extent to which different grades of IVH contribute to the spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Third is identifying interventions within NICU practice and postdischarge that can help mitigate the adverse impacts of IVH with attention to the timepoints at which these therapies are most supportive of neurodevelopmental outcomes.The age at which neurodevelopmental ….

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Nine new cases of hair loss treatment were diagnosed in the 24 hours http://okelainc.com to 8pm last night, bringing the total number of cases in NSW to 3,946.Confirmed cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,946Deaths (in NSW from confirmed cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,371,501 There were 20,852 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with propecia beard growth 12,494 in the previous 24 hours. Of the nine new cases to 8pm last night. One is propecia beard growth a returned overseas traveller in hotel quarantineSeven are linked to a known case or clusterOne case from South Eastern Sydney has no source identified at this point. One case attended Tattersalls City Gym, and one is a household contact of a previously reported case linked to the CBD cluster.

Both of propecia beard growth these cases were isolating. There is now a total of 68 cases linked to the CBD cluster.Five of the locally acquired cases are linked to Concord Hospital. Two healthcare workers, one patient and two household contacts of the patient.The two healthcare workers worked at the hospital while potentially infectious but reported having no symptoms while propecia beard growth at work and wore personal protective equipment while caring for patients. Contact tracing is underway.Twelve people associated with Concord and Liverpool have now tested positive for hair loss treatment, including eight healthcare workers.

Investigations into propecia beard growth the source of these s are ongoing.Non-urgent surgery at Concord has been cancelled until Friday. The hospital will be closed to all visitors from 8am today (Wednesday 9 September) until 10am Friday 11 September to enable deep cleaning of all wards. Following a boarding student at Kincoppal Rose propecia beard growth Bay School testing positive to hair loss treatment, 100 students have been identified as close contacts – not all boarders as previously reported. All close contacts, including teachers and students, have been placed into quarantine.

The school has been cleaned and propecia beard growth the boarding facility remains open to some year groups.As a number of boarding facility staff have been quarantined due to close contact with the case, there is reduced capacity to supervise students in the boarding facility. This has resulted in some year groups having to return home.Cases attended the following venues while infectious. Anyone who attended at the following times is considered to be a close contact propecia beard growth and is being directed to get tested and isolate for 14 days. They must stay isolated for the entire period, even if a negative test result is received.

Albion Hotel, Parramatta Beer Garden and Pavilion, on Saturday 5 September between 8.15pm - propecia beard growth 11.15pm for at least an hour. The Crocodile Farm Hotel, Ashfield on Friday 4 September between 5.30pm - 6.30pm for at least an hour. The New Shanghai Night restaurant, Ashfield on Friday 4 September between 6.30pm -8pm for at least propecia beard growth an hour. NSW Health is also directly contacting patrons identified as close contacts at these venues.

Patrons who were there for less than an hour at these times are considered casual contacts and must monitor for symptoms and get tested propecia beard growth immediately if they develop and remain in isolation until they receive a negative result. Anyone who attended the following venues or travelled on these trains at the following dates and times are considered a casual contact and must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop. After testing, they must remain in isolation until propecia beard growth a negative test result is received. Macquarie Shopping Centre, including Food Court, Coco Tea, Myer, Time Zone and Tommy Gun’s Barbershop, on Saturday 5 September from 2:00pm - 5:00pm.The Railway Hotel, Liverpool on Friday 4 September from 10:00pm - 11:30pm.T1/T9 North Shore Line on 7 September between 9:17 - 9:29am from Milson's Point to St Leonards T1/T9 North Shore Line on 7 September between 9:53 - 10:14am from St Leonard's to Milsons Point​ NSW Health is treating 88 hair loss treatment cases, including six in intensive care, three of whom are being ventilated.

Eighty-four per cent being treated by NSW Health are propecia beard growth in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.hair loss treatment continues to circulate in the community and we must all be vigilant. To help stop the spread of hair loss treatment. If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don’t delay.Wash your hands regularly. Take hand sanitiser propecia beard growth with you when you go out.Keep propecia online in canada your distance.

Leave 1.5 metres between yourself and others. Wear a mask on public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where propecia beard growth you can’t physically distance. Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,091Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,371Locally acquired – contact not identified395Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,991Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 221,599Fo​und positive105Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1034,328Found positive120​​​Today's press conference will be uploaded to the Press conference page once available.Nine new cases of hair loss treatment were diagnosed in the 24 hours to 8pm last night, and one previously reported case has been excluded following further testing. This brings the total number of cases in NSW to 3,937.Confirmed cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,937Deaths (in NSW from confirmed propecia beard growth cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,350,649 There were 12,494 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with 10,129 in the previous 24 hours.

Of the nine new cases to 8pm last night. Three are propecia beard growth returned overseas travellers in hotel quarantineFive are linked to a known case or clusterOne case from South Eastern Sydney has no source identified at this point.Three of the locally acquired cases are linked to Concord Hospital, including two healthcare workers, and the visitor who was mentioned in yesterday’s release. One new case is a student at Kincoppal Rose Bay School of the Sacred Heart and is linked to the CBD cluster. They are propecia beard growth a boarder.

All boarders and staff in the boarding area have been identified as close contacts. Boarding operations at the school have been suspended, and students are isolating at home with their families.One new case is a household contact of a previously reported case linked propecia beard growth to the CBD cluster. There is a total of 66 cases linked to this cluster.The two healthcare workers reported today worked at Concord Emergency Department and contact tracing is underway. They reported having no symptoms while at work and wore personal protective propecia beard growth equipment while caring for patients.Seven people associated with Concord and Liverpool Hospitals have now tested positive for hair loss treatment, including six healthcare workers.

Investigations into the source of these s are ongoing.Anyone who attended the following venues at these times is considered a casual contact and must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop. After testing, you must remain in isolation until a negative test result is received:Charles St Kitchen, 78 Charles St Putney on 5 September between 10:45am - 11:30am Eastwood Ryde Netball Association, Meadowbank Park, Adelaide St West Ryde on 5 September between 12:15pm propecia beard growth - 1:30pm. Some people who attended were close contacts and have been contacted directly to get tested and isolate for 14 days. Missing Spoon Café, 8 Railway Ave Wahroonga on propecia beard growth 5 September between 4:45pm – 5:30pm.

Croydon Park Pharmacy 172 Georges River Rd Croydon Park on 3 September between 1pm – 2pm. Anyone who attended the following venue at these times are considered close contacts and are being directed to get tested and isolate for 14 days, and stay isolated for the entire period, even if a propecia beard growth negative test result is received:Plus Fitness, 47 Beecroft Rd Epping on 5 September between 9am - 10:15am. NSW Health is treating 79 hair loss treatment cases, including seven in intensive care, three of whom are being ventilated. 84 percent being treated by NSW Health are in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.hair loss treatment continues to circulate in the community and we propecia beard growth must all be vigilant.

To help stop the spread of hair loss treatment. If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don’t delay.Wash your hands regularly propecia beard growth. Take hand sanitiser with you when you go out.Keep your distance. Leave 1.5 metres between yourself and propecia beard growth others.

Wear a mask on public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where you can’t physically distance. A full list of hair loss treatment testing clinics is available or people can visit their GP.Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,090Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,364Locally acquired – contact not identified394Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,964Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 221,248Fo​und positive104Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1034,010Found positive120​.

Nine new cases of hair loss treatment were diagnosed in the 24 hours to 8pm last night, http://www.em-erables-horbourg-wihr.site.ac-strasbourg.fr/classe3/?p=872 bringing the total number of cases in NSW to 3,946.Confirmed buy propecia online cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,946Deaths (in NSW from confirmed cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,371,501 There were 20,852 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with 12,494 in the previous 24 hours. Of the nine new cases to 8pm last night. One is a returned overseas traveller in hotel quarantineSeven are linked to a known case or clusterOne case from South Eastern Sydney has no source identified buy propecia online at this point.

One case attended Tattersalls City Gym, and one is a household contact of a previously reported case linked to the CBD cluster. Both of buy propecia online these cases were isolating. There is now a total of 68 cases linked to the CBD cluster.Five of the locally acquired cases are linked to Concord Hospital.

Two healthcare workers, one patient and two household contacts of the patient.The two healthcare workers worked at the hospital while potentially infectious but reported having no symptoms while at work and wore personal protective equipment while caring buy propecia online for patients. Contact tracing is underway.Twelve people associated with Concord and Liverpool have now tested positive for hair loss treatment, including eight healthcare workers. Investigations into the source of these s are ongoing.Non-urgent surgery at Concord has been cancelled buy propecia online until Friday.

The hospital will be closed to all visitors from 8am today (Wednesday 9 September) until 10am Friday 11 September to enable deep cleaning of all wards. Following a boarding student at Kincoppal Rose Bay School testing positive to hair loss treatment, 100 students have been identified as close contacts – not all buy propecia online boarders as previously reported. All close contacts, including teachers and students, have been placed into quarantine.

The school has been cleaned and the boarding facility remains open to some year groups.As a number of boarding facility staff have been quarantined buy propecia online due to close contact with the case, there is reduced capacity to supervise students in the boarding facility. This has resulted in some year groups having to return home.Cases attended the following venues while infectious. Anyone who attended at the following times is considered to be a close contact and is being directed buy propecia online to get tested and isolate for 14 days.

They must stay isolated for the entire period, even if a negative test result is received. Albion Hotel, Parramatta Beer Garden and Pavilion, on Saturday 5 September between 8.15pm buy propecia online - 11.15pm for at least an hour. The Crocodile Farm Hotel, Ashfield on Friday 4 September between 5.30pm - 6.30pm for at least an hour.

The New Shanghai Night restaurant, Ashfield on Friday 4 September between buy propecia online 6.30pm -8pm for at least an hour. NSW Health is also directly contacting patrons identified as close contacts at these venues. Patrons who were buy propecia online there for less than an hour at these times are considered casual contacts and must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop and remain in isolation until they receive a negative result.

Anyone who attended the following venues or travelled on these trains at the following dates and times are considered a casual contact and must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop. After testing, they must remain in buy propecia online isolation until a negative test result is received. Macquarie Shopping Centre, including Food Court, Coco Tea, Myer, Time Zone and Tommy Gun’s Barbershop, on Saturday 5 September from 2:00pm - 5:00pm.The Railway Hotel, Liverpool on Friday 4 September from 10:00pm - 11:30pm.T1/T9 North Shore Line on 7 September between 9:17 - 9:29am from Milson's Point to St Leonards T1/T9 North Shore Line on 7 September between 9:53 - 10:14am from St Leonard's to Milsons Point​ NSW Health is treating 88 hair loss treatment cases, including six in intensive care, three of whom are being ventilated.

Eighty-four per cent being treated by NSW Health are in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.hair loss treatment continues to circulate in the community and buy propecia online we must all be vigilant. To help stop the spread of hair loss treatment. If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don’t delay.Wash your hands regularly.

Take hand buy propecia online sanitiser with you buy generic propecia online when you go out.Keep your distance. Leave 1.5 metres between yourself and others. Wear a mask on public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where buy propecia online you can’t physically distance.

Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,091Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,371Locally acquired – contact not identified395Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,991Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 221,599Fo​und positive105Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1034,328Found positive120​​​Today's press conference will be uploaded to the Press conference page once available.Nine new cases of hair loss treatment were diagnosed in the 24 hours to 8pm last night, and one previously reported case has been excluded following further testing. This brings buy propecia online the total number of cases in NSW to 3,937.Confirmed cases (including interstate residents in NSW health care facilities)3,937Deaths (in NSW from confirmed cases)54Total tests carried out​​2,350,649 There were 12,494 tests reported in the 24-hour reporting period, compared with 10,129 in the previous 24 hours. Of the nine new cases to 8pm last night.

Three are returned overseas travellers in hotel quarantineFive are linked to a known case or clusterOne case from South Eastern Sydney has no source identified at this point.Three of buy propecia online the locally acquired cases are linked to Concord Hospital, including two healthcare workers, and the visitor who was mentioned in yesterday’s release. One new case is a student at Kincoppal Rose Bay School of the Sacred Heart and is linked to the CBD cluster. They are a boarder buy propecia online.

All boarders and staff in the boarding area have been identified as close contacts. Boarding operations at the school have been suspended, and students buy propecia online are isolating at home with their families.One new case is a household contact of a previously reported case linked to the CBD cluster. There is a total of 66 cases linked to this cluster.The two healthcare workers reported today worked at Concord Emergency Department and contact tracing is underway.

They reported having no symptoms while at work and wore personal protective buy propecia online equipment while caring for patients.Seven people associated with Concord and Liverpool Hospitals have now tested positive for hair loss treatment, including six healthcare workers. Investigations into the source of these s are ongoing.Anyone who attended the following venues at these times is considered a casual contact and must monitor for symptoms and get tested immediately if they develop. After testing, you must remain in isolation until a negative test result is received:Charles St Kitchen, 78 Charles St Putney on 5 September between 10:45am buy propecia online - 11:30am Eastwood Ryde Netball Association, Meadowbank Park, Adelaide St West Ryde on 5 September between 12:15pm - 1:30pm.

Some people who attended were close contacts and have been contacted directly to get tested and isolate for 14 days. Missing Spoon Café, 8 Railway Ave buy propecia online Wahroonga on 5 September between 4:45pm – 5:30pm. Croydon Park Pharmacy 172 Georges River Rd Croydon Park on 3 September between 1pm – 2pm.

Anyone who attended the following venue at these times are considered close contacts and are being directed to get tested and isolate for 14 days, and stay isolated for the entire period, even buy propecia online if a negative test result is received:Plus Fitness, 47 Beecroft Rd Epping on 5 September between 9am - 10:15am. NSW Health is treating 79 hair loss treatment cases, including seven in intensive care, three of whom are being ventilated. 84 percent being treated by NSW Health are in non-acute, out-of-hospital care.hair loss treatment continues to circulate in the community and we must all be vigilant buy propecia online.

To help stop the spread of hair loss treatment. If you are unwell, get tested and isolate right away – don’t delay.Wash your hands buy propecia online regularly. Take hand sanitiser with you when you go out.Keep your distance.

Leave 1.5 metres between buy propecia online yourself and others. Wear a mask on public transport, ride share, taxis, shopping, places of worship and other places where you can’t physically distance. A full list of hair loss treatment testing clinics is available or people can visit their GP.Confirmed cases to dateOverseas2,090Interstate acquired89Locally acquired – contact of a confirmed case and/or in a known cluster1,364Locally acquired – contact not identified394Under investigation0Counts reported for a particular day may vary over time with ongoing enhanced surveillance activities.Returned travellers in hotel quarantine to dateSymptomatic travell​ers tested4,964Found positive122Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 221,248Fo​und positive104Asymptomatic travellers screened at day 1034,010Found positive120​.